A professional writer who reads and copies manuscript
Scribe
A form of culture that includes, cities, specialized workers, writing, advanced technology, and complex institutions
Civilizations
To concentrate on one kind of work
specialize
A skilled worker who makes goods by hand
artisan
Excess; more than is needed
Surplus
An ancient form of writing that used wedge-shaped symbols
cuneiform
A mixture of copper and tin
bronze
A long-lasting pattern of organization in a society
Institution
The process of bringing water to crop fields by means of canals and ditches.
Irrigation
A political unit made up of a city and the surrounding countryside that is under the control of the city
City State
A form of trade in which people exchange goods not money
Barter
A Sumerian temple built in tiers
Ziggurat
A person who believes in more than one god
Polytheist
A state that conquers other territories and people and then rules them
Empire
A settlement in a new territory by a group of people who keep their ties to their home government; a region governed by foreign power
Colony
The ability to read and write
Literacy
A person who believes in one god
Monotheist
A contract or pledge
Covenant
Belief that proper moral conduct involves the worship of one god.
Ethical monotheism
A royal governor of a province in the Persian empire
Satrap
A messenger sent to reveal God's will
prophet