a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
STRESS
stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
TENSION
stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
COMPRESSION
stress that pushes mass on rock in opposite directions, in sideways movement
SHEARING
the shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface
EARTHQUAKE
the point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
FOCUS
the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquakes focus
EPICENTER
a type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground
P-WAVE
a type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side
S-WAVE
a type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach Earth's surface
SURFACE WAVE
the measurement of an earthquake's strength based on a seismic waves and movement along faults
MAGNITUDE
a device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth
SEISMOGRAPH
the record of an earthquake's seismic waves produced by a seismogram
SEISMOGRAM
an earthquake that occurs after a large earthquake in the same area
AFTERSHOCK
a giant wave usually caused by an earthquake beneath the ocean floor
TSUNAMI
a weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface
VOLCANO
an area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it
HOTSPOT
a major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
ringoffrire
a liquids resistance to flowing
VISCOSITY
a material found in magma that is formed from the elements of oxygen and silicon
SILICA
the expulsion of ash, cinder, bombs, and gases during an explosive eruption
PYROCLASTICFLOW
a volcano that is not currently active, but may become active in the future
DORMANT
a volcano that is no longer active and is unlikely to erupt again
EXTINCT
a wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions
SHIELDVOLCANO
a fountain of water and steam that builds up pressure underground and erupts at regular intervals
GEYSER

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