A chemical rule that reflects on an observation that atoms tend to combine in a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell
Octet Rule
The energy given off when a neutral atom gains an extra electron to form a negatively charged ion
Electron Affinity
A measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons/how strongly an atom can attract bonding electrons
The energy required to remove an electron from an atom or ion
Ionization Energy
Specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its size and electronic properties
A law in chemistry that states that the elements (when arranged in the order of their atomic numbers) show a periodic variation of atomic structure and of most of their properties
Periodic Law
The vertical columns of the periodic table that classify the family the atom is in (such as alkali earth metals, halogens, etc.)
The horizontal rows of the periodic table
The average mass of atoms of an element, calculated using the relative abundance of isotopes in a naturally-occurring element
Atomic Weight
The tabular arrangement of the elements according to their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties are in the same column
Periodic Table
The science that deals with the composition (make up) and properties of substances and the various forms that matter take