the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe in the past
Uniformitarianisim
the part of the interior of a terrestrial planet and especially the earth that lies beneath the crust and above the central core
Mantle
the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet or natural satellite
Crust
the Earth's innermost part
core
a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes and history that have shaped it.
Geologist
the solid mineral material forming part of the surface of the earth and other similar planets, exposed on the surface or underlying the soil or oceans
rock
a portion or layer of something, distinguished by color or nature from the rest
streak
the state or quality of shining by reflecting light; glitter, sparkle, sheen, or gloss
Luster
how some minerals break along flat planes when exposed to stress, such as being hit with a hammer.
Cleavage
How hard somethig is
hardness
is one that forms through intense, fiery heat––usually in a volcano
igneous
pertaining to or characterized by change of form
Metamorphic
a type of rock relatied to a matter that settle to the bottom of a liquid
sedimentary
in geology, magma forced into cavities or cracks of other rocks and crystallized but not reaching the surface
intrusive
Geology. noting or pertaining to a class of igneous rocks that have been forced out in a molten or plastic condition upon the surface of the earth
extrusive
a continuous process by which rocks are created, changed from one form to another, destroyed, and then formed again
rock cycle
the science or art of assembling, shaping, or ornamenting materials in construction; the constructive arts in general.
tectonics
the hypothetical landmass that existed when all continents were joined, from about 300 to 200 million years ago
pangaea
characterized by convergence; tending to come together; merging
convergent
A tectonic boundary where two plates are moving away from each other and new crust is forming from magma that rises to the Earth's surface between the two plates
Divergent
to change in form, appearance, or structure
transform
the process by which collision of the earth's crustal plates results in one plate's being drawn down or overridden by another, localized along the juncture of two plates.
subduction
pertaining to, of the nature of, or caused by an earthquake or vibration of the earth, whether due to natural or artificial causes
seismic
a longitudinal earthquake wave that travels through the interior of the earth and is usually the first conspicuous wave to be recorded by a seismograph
p wave
a transverse earthquake wave that travels through the interior of the earth and is usually the second conspicuous wave to reach a seismograph
s wave
a seismic wave that travels along or parallel to the earth's surface
surface wave
a series of vibrations induced in the earth's crust by the abrupt rupture and rebound of rocks in which elastic strain has been slowly accumulating
earthquake
a weakness in the rock strata that can shift and create an earthquake.
fault
an unusually large sea wave produced by a seaquake or undersea volcanic eruption
tsunami
a vent in the earth's crust through which lava, steam, ashes, etc., are expelled, either continuously or at irregular intervals
volcano
molten material beneath or within the earth's crust, from which igneous rock is formed
magma
a large, basinlike depression resulting from the explosion or collapse of the center of a volcano
caldera
the cup-shaped depression or cavity on the surface of the earth or other heavenly body marking the orifice of a volcano
crater

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