use of components in a sentence that are grammatically the same; or similar in their construction, sound, meaning or
Parallelism
a line in verse or poetry that has five strong metrical feet or beats
Trochaic
Couplet: two successive rhyming lines in a verse and has the same meter to form a complete
thought.
Caesura: a pause near the middle of a
line.
Conceit: figure of speech in which two vastly different objects are likened together with the help of similes or
metaphors.
Synecdoche: literary device in which a part of something represents the whole or it may use a whole to represent a
part.
Persona: a voice or an assumed role of a character that represents the thoughts of a writer or a specific person the writer wants to present as his
mouthpiece.
Characterization: used step by step in literature to highlight and explain the details about a character in a
story.
Hyperbole: figure of speech, which involves an exaggeration of ideas for the sake of
emphasis.
Alliteration: stylistic device in which a number of words, having the same first consonant sound, occur close together in a
series.
Syntax: a set of rules in a language. It dictates how words from different parts of speech are put together in order to convey a complete
thought.
Metonymy: replaces the name of a thing with the name of something else with which it is closely
associated.
Litote: employs an understatement by using double negatives or, in other words, positive statement is expressed by negating its opposite
expressions.
Juxtaposition: two or more ideas, places, characters and their actions are placed side by side in a narrative or a poem for the purpose of developing comparisons and
contrasts.
Antithesis: two opposite ideas are put together in a sentence to achieve a contrasting
effect.
Polysyndeton: several coordinating conjunctions are used in succession in order to achieve an artistic
effect.
Personification: figure of speech in which a thing, an idea or an animal is given human
attributes.
Assonance: two or more words close to one another repeat the same vowel sound but start with different consonant
sounds.
Foreshadow: literary device in which a writer gives an advance hint of what is to come later in the
story.
Consonance: repetitive sounds produced by consonants within a sentence or
phrase.
Satire: technique employed by writers to expose and criticize foolishness and corruption of an individual or a society by using humor, irony, exaggeration or
ridicule.
Soliloquy: used in drama to reveal the innermost thoughts of a
character.
Colloquial: the use of informal words, phrases or even slang in a piece of
writing
Archetype: typical character, an action or a situation that seems to represent such universal patterns of human
nature.
Iambic: a foot containing unaccented and short syllables followed by a long and accented syllable in a single line of a poem (unstressed/stressed
syllables).
Asyndeton: figure of speech sometimes represented by exclamation “O”. A writer or a speaker, using an apostrophe, detaches himself from the reality and addresses an imaginary character in his
speech.

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