a group of similar species
Genus
Science of naming and grouping organisms
Systematics
Groups that have a biological meaning
Taxon
A group of genera
Family
closely related families
order
closely related orders
class
what classes are organized into
phylum
The largest of Linnaeus's taxonomic categories
Kingdom
the evolutionary history of lineages
phylogeny
a group of species that includes a single common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor-living and extinct
Clade
links groups of organisms by showing evolutionary lines, or lineages, branched off from common ancestors
Cladogram
A trait that arose in the most recent common ancestor of a particular lineage and was passed along to its descendents
Derived Character
a larger, more inclusive category than a kingdom
Domain
Domain that consists of Unicelllular, prokaryotic organisms with thick cell walls
Bacteria
Domain that consists of unicellular, prokaryotic organisms that live in the most extreme conditions
Archaea
Domain that consists of all organisms that have a nucleus
Eukarya
A kingdom that consists of heterotrophs with cell walls containing chitin
Fungi
Kingdom that consists of autotrophs with cell walls that contain cellulose
Plantae
Kingdom of organisms that are multicellular, heterotrophic organisms that have no cell walls
Animalia
An animal with a backbone
Vertebrate
An animal without a backbone
Invertebrate
Internal skeleton
Endoskeleton
hard outer covering that protects the body
Exoskeleton
an animal whose body temperature does not change much
Warm-blooded
an animal whose body temperature depends on its surroundings
cold-blooded
A long supporting rod that runs through the body just below the nerve cord
Notochord
Members of the clade commonly known as Phylum Chordata
Chordates
parts of an animal's body match up around a midpoint or line
Symmetry
simplest kind of invertebrate that is shaped like a sack and lives underwater
Sponges
Organisms that float or swim and have tentacles that sting (corals, jellyfish)
Cnidarians
Organisms with a shell(clams, oysters, octopus, squid)
Mollusks
Organisms with spiny skin and an endoskeleton
Echinoderms
Organisms with legs that bend, bodies with sections, and an exoskeleton(largest group of invertebrates)
Arthropods
Organisms with antennae, 3 pairs of legs, 3 body sections, sometimes wings
Insects
4 pairs of legs, 2 body sections, fangs(spiders, scorpions)
Arachnids
2 pairs of antennae, 2-3 body sections, can chew(crab)
Crustaceans
1 pair of legs on each body section
Centipedes
simplest worms with flat bodies, some live inside other animals
Flatworms
Worms that have thin bodies with pointed ends, most live inside other animals
roundworms
Worms with bodies divided into parts that are the same except the front and tail end, live on land(earthworms)
Segemented Worms
Organisms that lve part of their lives in water, and the other part on land. lay eggs (frogs)
Amphibians
Organisms with dry, scaly skin. Breath through lungs, lay eggs(lizards)
Reptiles
Organisms with feathers to keep them warm and dry. beaks and 2 legs. not all can fly, lay eggs.
Birds
Warm-blooded vertebrate wilth fur or hair. Females give birth to offspring and make their own milk
Mammals