a vulnerability intentionally left in the security of a computer system or its software by its designers
back door
data that has been encrypted
ciphertext
looking through trash for access codes or other sensitive information
dumpster diving
the process of taking over a live connection between two users so that the attacker can masquerade as one of the users
hijacking
using a password or user ID obtained in one attack to commit another attack
leapfrog attack
a device that records the telephone numbers of calls received by a particular telephone
pen register
a person who combines phone phreaking with computer hacking
phracker
a person who hacks telephone systems, usually for the purpose of making free phone calls
phreaker
slang for pirated software
warez
The payload is the part of the malware program that actually executes its designed task.
Payload
An individual who does not possess, or just doesn’t use, their own skills and know-how to hack or crack a computer system or network, but uses a pre-written program or piece of code, a script, to do the dirty work. While they may not possess the computing talent, they can be just as dangerous!
Script Kiddie
is the act of driving around in a vehicle with the purpose of finding an open, unsecured Wi-Fi wireless network
Wardriving
Parallel websites that allow children to get around filtering software and access sites that have been blocked
Circumventor Sites
A hostile, strongly worded message that may contain obscene language.
Flame
An attack in which an unauthorized actor, often a nation-state, employs highly sophisticated technology and/or tactics to gain and maintain surreptitious access to a network.
Advanced Persistent Threat
The exploitation of computers and computer networks as a means of protest to promote political ends.
Hacktivism
Phony email, usually an alert about a non-existent threat, that is passed throughout a system by a large number of individuals who believe it to be true – and that overwhelms the system as a result
Hoax email
Redirecting users from a legitimate site to a bogus one; information entered on the phony site is captured for fraudulent purposes
Pharming
Creates access points in a computer for a cybercriminal, so that they can enter undetected
Rootkit
Making small, undetectable changes over an extended period of time
Salami attack
Scam software that appears to be legitimate, to encourage download
Scareware
Phishing using text messages rather than emails
Smishing
Accessing a secure network by changing the remote computer’s IP address to that of a computer with special privileges
Spoofing
Tricking a user (through an email or phone call) into entering credit card information into a bogus voice response system; information entered into the phony system is captured for fraudulent purposes
Vishing
Changing the appearance of a website and/or reducing its usability, usually by replacing the legitimate website with a phony one
Website defacement
Cross-site scripting attack. Malware injected into a trusted site, presented through a hyperlink
XXS attack
is a distributed denial-of-service attack in which large numbers of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) packets with the intended victim’s spoofed source IP are broadcast to a computer network using an IP broadcast address. Most devices on a network respond to this by sending a reply to the source IP address. This can slow down the victim’s computer to the point where it becomes impossible to work on
Smurf Attack
is defined as deliberately trying to change or alter a system’s logic, data, or control information to cause the system to perform unauthorized functions or services.
Tamper
is defined as any communication between a single sender and a single receiver over a network. The term exists in contradiction to multicast, communication between a single sender and multiple receivers, and any cast, communication between any sender and the nearest of a group of receivers in a network.
Unicast
is marking areas, usually on sidewalks with chalk, that receive wireless signals to advertise an open Wi-Fi network. It was inspired by hobo symbols and were conceived by a group of friends in June 2002. They were publicised by Matt Jones who designed the set of icons and produced a downloadable document containing them.
War Chalking
is a computer network authentication protocol and is ticket-based allowing nodes to communicate over a non-secure. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) developed to protect network services provided by the Project Athena. This protocol is based on the earlier Needham–Schroeder symmetric key protocol. These protocol messages are protected against snooping and replay attacks.
Kerberos
A virus or physical device that logs information sent to a visual display to capture private or personal information.
Screen scraper
Server that acts as an intermediary between users and others servers, validating user requests.
Proxy server
Malware from someone who appears to be a trusted user of a site
XSRF attack
Flooding a network or website or network with requests, making it impossible for legitimate users to access the site
DDoS attack

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