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the entire set of items from which data can be selected Population

divide an ordered data set into 4 equal parts Quartiles

a numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic

information about a product or process, usually in numerical order Data

score that occurs most often Mode

middle score when listed in numerical order Median

average Mean

a subset, or portion, of the population. Sample

the square root of variance Standard Deviation

a census occurs when everyone in the population is contacted Census

a mistake causing results that are not representative of the population Bias

have a finite number of distinct values or counts DiscreteRandom

consists of attributes, labels, or non-numerical entries Qualitative Data

consist of numerical measurements or count Quantitative Data

the difference between the greatest data element and the least data element Range

data that are far away from most of the data points Outliers

the fact that the value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling Sampling Variability

a symmetric distribution can be divided at the center so that each half is a mirror image of the other Symmetry

he average of the squares of the deviations of the observations from their mean Variance

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Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses. Data

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions Statistics

The collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest Population

A subset of a population Sample

A numerical description of a population characteristic Parameter

A numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic

The branch of statistics that involves the organization, summmarization, and display of data Descriptive Statistic

Consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries Qualitative Data

Consist of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative Data

Occurs when an experiment cannot tell the difference between the effects of the different factors on a variable. Confounding Variable

A technique where the subject does not know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or a placebo Blinding

A process of randomly assigning subjects to different treatment groups. Randomization

The repetition of an experiment using a large group of subjects. Replication

A count or measure of an entire population. Census

On in which every member of he population has an equal chance of being selected. Random Sample

Depending on the focus of the study, members of the population are divided into two or more subsets Stratified Sample

Divide the population into groups and select the members in one or more groups Cluster Sample

Each member of the population is assigned a number Systematic Sample

Convenience Sample Convenience Sample

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Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis Data

Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities Statistics

The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn Population

Official count or survey of a population Census

A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like Sample

A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation Parameter

A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data Statistic

Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range Quantitative Data

Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data Qualitative Data

Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number Discrete

Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions Continuous

Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only. Nominal

Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Ordinal

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful Interval

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point. Ratio

Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied Observational Study

Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time Cross Sectional Study

Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome Prospective Study

Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence Retrospective Study

a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable. Confounding

The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not. Blinding

noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment. Placebo Effect

denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test. Double Blind

With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Blocks

the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. Replication

type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Systematic Sampling

One of the non-probability sampling methods Convenience Sampling

Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata Stratified Sampling

sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population Cluster Sampling

the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population Sampling Error

the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling. Nonsampling Error

a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected Random Sample

subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. Simple Random Sample

Subjects that are very carefully chosen Rigorously Controlled Design

subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection Completely Randomized Design

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the value that lies in the middle of the data when arranged in ascending order median

the most frequent observation of the variable that occurs in the data set mode

the science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing information to draw conclusions or answer questions statistics

a person or object that is a member of the population being studied individual

a subset of the population that is being studied sample

a numerical summary of a population parameter

occurs when the effects of two or more explanatory variables are not separated confounding

a graph constructed by drawing rectangles for each class of data histogram

the degree to which the data are spread out dispersion

: the difference between the largest and the smallest data value range

the square of the standard deviation variance

the distance that a data value is from the mean in terms of the number of standard deviations zscore

a statement regarding a characteristic of one or more populations hypothesis

each repetition of an experiment trial

serve as cutoff points for determining outliers fences

a number computed by adding all the values of the variable in the data set and dividing by the number of observations mean

: the characteristics of the individuals within the populations variables

The list of observed values for a variable data

a type of diagram that lists the equally likely outcomes of an experiment using branches tree

a type of diagram that represents events as circles enclosed in a rectangle venn

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Tells how many standard deviations a value is from the mean. zscore

The value found by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation. standardizedvalue

The process of multiplying each value by a constant that multiplies both the measures of position and measures of spread by that constant. rescaling

The square root of the variance. standarddeviation

Numerical attribute of a model. parameter

Type of Normal model with mean 0 and standard deviation 1. standard

Display to help assess whether a distribution of data is approximately Normal. normalprobabilityplot

Numerical attribute of a set of data. statistic

In a Normal model, about 68% of the values within 1 standard deviation of the mean, about 95% within 2 standard deviations, and about 99.7% within 3 standard deviations. empiricalrule

model used for certain unimodal, symmetric distributions. normal

The sum of the squared deviations from the mean, divided by the count minus one. variance

center of the Normal model. mean

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Is the opposite of the probability of something happening Complement

The thing we try to avoid in all experiments Bias

When two events share no common outcomes Disjoint

imposes some treatment on individuals in order to observe their responses Experiment

a graph that shows quantitative numbers where the bar touches Histogram

the average of a set of data Mean

The middle score of a distribution Median

Most frequently occurring number Mode

An observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data Outlier

A numerical quantity measuring some aspect of a population of scores Parameter

The entire group of individuals about which we want information from Population

Subjects are selected randomly randomize

Difference between the actual and estimated function value Residual

When a distribution is not symmetric skewed

The sum of squared deviations from the mean, divided by the count minus one Variance

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Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses data

the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data Descriptive statistics

Data can be ordered, and meaningful differences between entries can be calculated Interval

consists of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative data

a subset, or part, of a populatin sample

a numerical description of a population characteristic parameter

Data are qualitative only - categorized by using names, labels, or qualities nominal

the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population Inferential statistics

determines which statistical calculations are meaningful level of measurement

consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries qualitative data

a numerical description of a sample characteristic statistic

the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest population

the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions statistics

data that are qualitative or quantitative - can be arranged in order, or ranked, but differences between data entries are not meaningful ordinal

Data can be set up so that one data entry can be meaningfully expressed as a multiplier of another ratio

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A set of information data

the range of numbers that includes the largest and smallest values scale

the difference between the largest and smallest values range

the scale divided into equal, non-overlapping parts intervals

a graphical representation of data on a number line line plot

data that is unbroken and numerical continuous

a graph depicting bars that represent non-continuous data bar graph

a bar graph representing continuous data; bars touch histogram

the middle data point when the data are in order median

the sum of the data divided by the number of data mean

the data that occurs most mode

the ratio of the number of successful outcomes to the number of possible outcomes probability

the set of all possible outcomes sample space

the result of a probability experiment outcome

when the result of the first event does not affect the result of the second event independent events

when the result of the first event does affect the result of the second event dependent events

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numbers or information describing some characteristic data

collection of data from every element of a population census

measured characteristic of a sample stastistic

data where the number of possibilities is finite discrete

characterizes data may be arranged in order ordinal

data you find and observe observational

situation occurs when effects of 2 or more variables can not be distinguished from each other confounding

groups of subjects that are similar blocks

data is readily available convience

difference between population result and true population samplingerror

sample of particular size simplerandomsample

methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, summerizing, etc. statistics

subset of a population sample

observations made by counting quantitative

infinatley many possible values continuous

level of measurement interval

data is observed from one point of time crosssectional

experiments undergo a placebo blinding

repetition of an expiriment replication

samples are drawn from groups stratified

untreated subject believes they are under treatment placeboeffect

entire collection of elements to be studied population

measured characteristics parameter

observation using senses qualitative

characterizes data by names and labels nomial

data that can be arranged in order like a fraction ratio

data is collected from the past retrospective

subject and person giving subject treatment are under a placebo doubleblind

every (x) element is selected systematic

randomly selecting subjects in a population cluster

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Average of the numbers Mean

Arranging objects of a set in no specific order Combinations

The average of the squared differences from the mean Variance

The whole group that is being studied Population

Random experiment that has two possible outcomes: success and failure Bernoulli Trials

Measure of how spread out the numbers are Standard Deviation

Likelihood of something occurring in the future Probability

Process over time in which outcomes match real-world problems Simulation

The number of times the data value occurs Frequency

Sum of all possible values each multiplied by the probability of it occurring Expected Value

Used to gather information Survey

Bell-shaped density curve described by its mean and standard deviation Normal Distribution

When event A's occurrence does not affect the probability of Event B occurring Independent Event

The "middle" number in a set of ordered numbers from least to greatest Median

The number of standard deviations a data point is from the mean Zscore

Arranging objects of a set in a specific order Permutations

Selected people/objects from the whole Sample

Collecting, organizing, and interpreting data Statistics

The outcome of Event A affects the outcome of Event B Dependent Event

Number that appears most often in a set of numbers Mode

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A ______ is a numerical facsimile or representation of a real-world phenomenon. simulation

_____ are measurements or observations from which the entire population are used. census

A _____ is a group of individuals sharing some common features the might affect the treatment. Block

A ____ is a list of individuals from which a sample is actually selected. Sampling Frame

A ____ is the result of poor sample design, sloppy data collection, faulty measuring instruments, bias in questionaries and so on. Non sampling Error

____ results from omitting population members from the sample frame. Over coverage

In _____, are only from some of the individuals of interest. sample data

A ____ is a numerical measure that describes an aspect of the population. parameter

____ sampling uses a variety of smapling methods to create successively smaller groups at each stage. multistage clustering

Population divided into subgroups. Stratified

A measurement or observation from which only a part of the population is used. sample