# Unit 7 Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

the entire set of items from which data can be selected Population
divide an ordered data set into 4 equal parts Quartiles
a numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic
information about a product or process, usually in numerical order Data
score that occurs most often Mode
middle score when listed in numerical order Median
average Mean
a subset, or portion, of the population. Sample
the square root of variance Standard Deviation
a census occurs when everyone in the population is contacted Census
a mistake causing results that are not representative of the population Bias
have a finite number of distinct values or counts DiscreteRandom
consists of attributes, labels, or non-numerical entries Qualitative Data
consist of numerical measurements or count Quantitative Data
the difference between the greatest data element and the least data element Range
data that are far away from most of the data points Outliers
the fact that the value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling Sampling Variability
a symmetric distribution can be divided at the center so that each half is a mirror image of the other Symmetry
he average of the squares of the deviations of the observations from their mean Variance

## Chapter 1: Statistics Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses. Data
The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions Statistics
The collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest Population
A subset of a population Sample
A numerical description of a population characteristic Parameter
A numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic
The branch of statistics that involves the organization, summmarization, and display of data Descriptive Statistic
Consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries Qualitative Data
Consist of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative Data
Occurs when an experiment cannot tell the difference between the effects of the different factors on a variable. Confounding Variable
A technique where the subject does not know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or a placebo Blinding
A process of randomly assigning subjects to different treatment groups. Randomization
The repetition of an experiment using a large group of subjects. Replication
A count or measure of an entire population. Census
On in which every member of he population has an equal chance of being selected. Random Sample
Depending on the focus of the study, members of the population are divided into two or more subsets Stratified Sample
Divide the population into groups and select the members in one or more groups Cluster Sample
Each member of the population is assigned a number Systematic Sample
Convenience Sample Convenience Sample

## Statistics Vocabulary Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis Data
Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities Statistics
The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn Population
Official count or survey of a population Census
A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like Sample
A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation Parameter
A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data Statistic
Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range Quantitative Data
Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data Qualitative Data
Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number Discrete
Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions Continuous
Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only. Nominal
Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Ordinal
Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful Interval
Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point. Ratio
Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied Observational Study
Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time Cross Sectional Study
Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome Prospective Study
Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence Retrospective Study
a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable. Confounding
The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not. Blinding
noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment. Placebo Effect
denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test. Double Blind
With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Blocks
the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. Replication
type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Systematic Sampling
One of the non-probability sampling methods Convenience Sampling
Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata Stratified Sampling
sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population Cluster Sampling
the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population Sampling Error
the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling. Nonsampling Error
a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected Random Sample
subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. Simple Random Sample
Subjects that are very carefully chosen Rigorously Controlled Design
subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection Completely Randomized Design

## Statistics Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

the value that lies in the middle of the data when arranged in ascending order median
the most frequent observation of the variable that occurs in the data set mode
the science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing information to draw conclusions or answer questions statistics
a person or object that is a member of the population being studied individual
a subset of the population that is being studied sample
a numerical summary of a population parameter
occurs when the effects of two or more explanatory variables are not separated confounding
a graph constructed by drawing rectangles for each class of data histogram
the degree to which the data are spread out dispersion
: the difference between the largest and the smallest data value range
the square of the standard deviation variance
the distance that a data value is from the mean in terms of the number of standard deviations zscore
a statement regarding a characteristic of one or more populations hypothesis
each repetition of an experiment trial
serve as cutoff points for determining outliers fences
a number computed by adding all the values of the variable in the data set and dividing by the number of observations mean
: the characteristics of the individuals within the populations variables
The list of observed values for a variable data
a type of diagram that lists the equally likely outcomes of an experiment using branches tree
a type of diagram that represents events as circles enclosed in a rectangle venn

## 06 - Standard Deviation and the Normal Model Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Tells how many standard deviations a value is from the mean. zscore
The value found by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation. standardizedvalue
The process of multiplying each value by a constant that multiplies both the measures of position and measures of spread by that constant. rescaling
The square root of the variance. standarddeviation
Numerical attribute of a model. parameter
Type of Normal model with mean 0 and standard deviation 1. standard
Display to help assess whether a distribution of data is approximately Normal. normalprobabilityplot
Numerical attribute of a set of data. statistic
In a Normal model, about 68% of the values within 1 standard deviation of the mean, about 95% within 2 standard deviations, and about 99.7% within 3 standard deviations. empiricalrule
model used for certain unimodal, symmetric distributions. normal
The sum of the squared deviations from the mean, divided by the count minus one. variance
center of the Normal model. mean

## Statistics is fun! Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Is the opposite of the probability of something happening Complement
The thing we try to avoid in all experiments Bias
When two events share no common outcomes Disjoint
imposes some treatment on individuals in order to observe their responses Experiment
a graph that shows quantitative numbers where the bar touches Histogram
the average of a set of data Mean
The middle score of a distribution Median
Most frequently occurring number Mode
An observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data Outlier
A numerical quantity measuring some aspect of a population of scores Parameter
The entire group of individuals about which we want information from Population
Subjects are selected randomly randomize
Difference between the actual and estimated function value Residual
When a distribution is not symmetric skewed
The sum of squared deviations from the mean, divided by the count minus one Variance

## Elementary Statistics Chapter 1.1 and 1.2 Vocabulary Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses data
the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data Descriptive statistics
Data can be ordered, and meaningful differences between entries can be calculated Interval
consists of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative data
a subset, or part, of a populatin sample
a numerical description of a population characteristic parameter
Data are qualitative only - categorized by using names, labels, or qualities nominal
the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population Inferential statistics
determines which statistical calculations are meaningful level of measurement
consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries qualitative data
a numerical description of a sample characteristic statistic
the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest population
the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions statistics
data that are qualitative or quantitative - can be arranged in order, or ranked, but differences between data entries are not meaningful ordinal
Data can be set up so that one data entry can be meaningfully expressed as a multiplier of another ratio

## Probability and Statistics Terms Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A set of information data
the range of numbers that includes the largest and smallest values scale
the difference between the largest and smallest values range
the scale divided into equal, non-overlapping parts intervals
a graphical representation of data on a number line line plot
data that is unbroken and numerical continuous
a graph depicting bars that represent non-continuous data bar graph
a bar graph representing continuous data; bars touch histogram
the middle data point when the data are in order median
the sum of the data divided by the number of data mean
the data that occurs most mode
the ratio of the number of successful outcomes to the number of possible outcomes probability
the set of all possible outcomes sample space
the result of a probability experiment outcome
when the result of the first event does not affect the result of the second event independent events
when the result of the first event does affect the result of the second event dependent events

## statistics vocab Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

numbers or information describing some characteristic data
collection of data from every element of a population census
measured characteristic of a sample stastistic
data where the number of possibilities is finite discrete
characterizes data may be arranged in order ordinal
data you find and observe observational
situation occurs when effects of 2 or more variables can not be distinguished from each other confounding
groups of subjects that are similar blocks
difference between population result and true population samplingerror
sample of particular size simplerandomsample
methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, summerizing, etc. statistics
subset of a population sample
infinatley many possible values continuous
level of measurement interval
data is observed from one point of time crosssectional
experiments undergo a placebo blinding
repetition of an expiriment replication
samples are drawn from groups stratified
untreated subject believes they are under treatment placeboeffect
entire collection of elements to be studied population
measured characteristics parameter
observation using senses qualitative
characterizes data by names and labels nomial
data that can be arranged in order like a fraction ratio
data is collected from the past retrospective
subject and person giving subject treatment are under a placebo doubleblind
every (x) element is selected systematic
randomly selecting subjects in a population cluster

## Statistical Inference Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Average of the numbers Mean
Arranging objects of a set in no specific order Combinations
The average of the squared differences from the mean Variance
The whole group that is being studied Population
Random experiment that has two possible outcomes: success and failure Bernoulli Trials
Measure of how spread out the numbers are Standard Deviation
Likelihood of something occurring in the future Probability
Process over time in which outcomes match real-world problems Simulation
The number of times the data value occurs Frequency
Sum of all possible values each multiplied by the probability of it occurring Expected Value
Used to gather information Survey
Bell-shaped density curve described by its mean and standard deviation Normal Distribution
When event A's occurrence does not affect the probability of Event B occurring Independent Event
The "middle" number in a set of ordered numbers from least to greatest Median
The number of standard deviations a data point is from the mean Zscore
Arranging objects of a set in a specific order Permutations
Selected people/objects from the whole Sample
Collecting, organizing, and interpreting data Statistics
The outcome of Event A affects the outcome of Event B Dependent Event
Number that appears most often in a set of numbers Mode

## Statistics Chapter 1 Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A ______ is a numerical facsimile or representation of a real-world phenomenon. simulation
_____ are measurements or observations from which the entire population are used. census
A _____ is a group of individuals sharing some common features the might affect the treatment. Block
A ____ is a list of individuals from which a sample is actually selected. Sampling Frame
A ____ is the result of poor sample design, sloppy data collection, faulty measuring instruments, bias in questionaries and so on. Non sampling Error
____ results from omitting population members from the sample frame. Over coverage
In _____, are only from some of the individuals of interest. sample data
A ____ is a numerical measure that describes an aspect of the population. parameter
____ sampling uses a variety of smapling methods to create successively smaller groups at each stage. multistage clustering
Population divided into subgroups. Stratified
A measurement or observation from which only a part of the population is used. sample