The study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes
chemistry
any substance that has a definite composition
chemical
a measure of the amount of matter
mass
anything that has mass and takes up space
matter
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
atom
a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
element
testable statement
hypothesis
science is more than a physical object: it is often an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related
model
something that has magnitude, size, and amount
quantity
the amount of space occupied by an object
volume
a measurement consist of all the digits known with certainty plus one final digit
sigs figs
an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element
atomic number
atoms of the same element that have different masses
isotopes
a general term for any isotope of any element
nuclide
the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
mole
defined as the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second
frequency
the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
wavelength
the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom
quantum
the lowest energy state of an atom
ground state
a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than has in its ground state
excited state
a particle pf electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy
photon
an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties fall in the same column, group
periodic table
the elements of Group 17
halogens
a broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena
theory
a short range force that holds the nuclear particles together
nuclear force
a positive ion
cation
a negative ion
anion
an atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge
ion
the formation of ions from solute molecules by the action of the solvent
ionization
spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion
diffusion
a substance that can flow and therefore take shape of its container
fluid
the force per unit area on a surface
pressure
the SI unit or force
newton
a unit of pressure based on an absolute scale
torr
a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening
effusion
the physical change of a solid to a liquid by the addition of heat
melting
the physical change from a liquid to a solid by the removal of heat
freezing
the conversion of liquid to vapor
boiling
any part of a system that has uniform composition and properties
phase
the substance dissolved in a solution
solute
1
mono
2
di
4
tetra