a metabolic reaction that converts biochemical energy from nutrients into ATP
cellular respiration
ions moving through selectively permeable membrane down the electrochemical gradient
chemiosmosis
a green pigment that absorbs light that provides energy for photosynthesis
chlorophyll
in biochemistry what binds an effector molecule as a site
allosteric regulation
process where the quaternary structure, teritiary structure, and secondary structure are loss by proteins
denaturation
a process that changes sugar into gases, alcohol, and acids which occur in bacteria
Fermentation
series of chemical reactions occuring within a cell in within a cell in which an initial chemical reactions; enzymes catalyze these reactions
Metabolic pathway
a energy transformation in a group of matter
thermodynamics
energy needed distort reactant molecules so bonds can break
activation energy
a open space on the surface of an enzyme and is also where catalysis occurs
active site
a loosely bounded cofactor to enzyme
coenzyme
a non-protein helpers for catalytic activity that commonly bind to enzymes
cofactors
a system that can not exchange either energy or matter with surroundings
isolated system
energy matter that possess because of location or structure; energy that hasn't yet been used
potential energy
energy and matter can be transferred between system and surroundings
open system
potential energy available for release in chemical reaction
chemical energy
consume energy to build complicated molecules to simper ones; biosynthetic pathways
anabolic pathways
reactant that enzyme acts on
substrate
loss of electrons from one substance
oxidation
oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel
aerobic respiration