molten rock
magma
cool, top layer of Earth
crust
17 huge slabs of rock
tectonic plates
tool to measure motion of ground
seismometer
a naturally occurring solid that has a specific chemical make-up
Mineral
2 or more minerals together.
Rock
formed from cooled magma or lava.
Igneous
forms under the surface, cools slowly and forms big crystals.
Intrusive
forms above the surface, forms small crystals.
Extrusive
made of sand, rocks, minerals, and organic matter.
Sedimentary
the compaction and cementation of sediments.
lithification
organisms (plants + animals) preserved in sedimentary rock.
fossils
formed when heat and pressure "RECYLCE" rock.
Metamorphic
this law states that older rocks are at the bottom of the sequence, youngest at the top.
Law of Superposition
movement of Earths crust.
Plate Tectonics
heat, ash, and lava released from vent forms "cones"
volcanoes
shaking caused when tectonic plates suddenly move and release pressure and stress.
Earthquakes
acid rain eats away rock. Forms caves and sinkholes.
chemical weathering
water and wind breaking down rocks.
physical weathering
weathered rock and organic matter.
Soil
organic material
Humus
nutrient rich
Topsoil
sand, silt, clay
Subsoil
Least Permeable
Bed Rock
air spaces
Porosity
ability to transport H2O
Permeability
gritty, H2O flows easily
Sand
powder
Silt
sticky and clumpy (NO H2O flow)
Clay
best for plants, mix of all.
Loam
wind deposited silt
Loess
decomposing organic matter
Humus