the practice by which secular rulers both chose nominees to church offices and gave them the symbols of their office
Lay investiture
a decree by the pope that forbade priests from giving the sacraments of the Church to the people
Interdict
a Christian rite
Sacrament
a group of related families
Clan
a circular tent made by stretching buffalo skins over wooden poles
Tepee
a soldier who fights primarily for pay
Mercenary
a labor system that the Spanish administrators in Peru used to draft native people to work
Mita
the religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed
Lutheranism
the state of being saved through faith alone or through faith and good works
Salvation
a person of mixed African and European descent
Mulatto
fighting from ditches protected by barbed wire, as in World War I
Trench Warfare
the private domain of an Ottoman sultan, where he and his wives resided
Harem
the process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war
Mobilization
a truce or an agreement to end fighting
Armistice
a release from all or part of punishment for sin by the Catholic Church, reducing time in purgatory after death
Indulgence
an extended family unit that has combined into a larger community
Lineage Groups
a relatively high, flat land area
Plateau
broad grassland dotted with small trees and shrubs
Savanna
Iroquois house about 150 to 200 feet (46 to 61m) long built of wooden poles covered with sheets of bark and housing about a dozen families
Longhouse
a member of the middle class who lived in a city or town
Burgher
a person of mixed European and Native American descent
Mestizo
the military and political head of state under the Seljuk Turks
Sultan
a form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote
Republic
an appointed official of the Ottoman Empire who collected taxes, maintained law and order, and was directly responsible to the sultan’s court
Pasha