the branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings.
a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.
a group of individuals of the same species inhabiting the same area.
an association of populations of two or more different species occupying the same area in a particular time.
a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
organisms that can make their own energy through biochemical processes, also known as autotrophs
organisms of an ecological food chain which receive energy by consuming other organisms, also known as heterotrophs
A process in which organisms, with the aid of chlorophyll (green plant enzyme), convert carbon dioxide and inorganic substances into oxygen and additional plant material, using sunlight for energy.
an animal that gets its energy from eating plants, and only plants
an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue
a group of animals that derive energy and nutrients from a variety of food sources, such as plants and animals, as well as fungi, algae and bacteria.
organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms, and in doing so, they carry out the natural process of decomposition
A succession of organisms in a community that are linked to each other through the transfer of energy and nutrients, beginning with an autotrophic organism such as a plant and continuing with each organism being consumed by one higher in the chain
food chain
system of interlocking and interdependent food chains
food web
any class of organisms that occupy the same position in a food chain, as primary consumers, secondary consumers, and tertiary consumers. Only 10% of the energy is transferred from each level.
Trophic level
the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time
the state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.
the weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.
A term used to describe the heating of the atmosphere owing to the presence of carbon dioxide and other gases.
greenhouse effect
the natural home or environment of an animal, plant, or other organism.
the ecological role of an organism in a community especially in regard to food consumption
Destruction of the upper atmospheric layer of ozone gas, caused by substances formed from breakdown of ozone depleting substances, known as chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs
ozone depletion
he act or result of cutting down or burning all the trees in an area, reducing the number of organisms able to carry out photosynthesis
rainfall made sufficiently acidic by atmospheric pollution that it causes environmental harm, typically to forests and lakes
acid rain
a plant, fungus, or animal species that is not native to a specific location
the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism
the increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain

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