Numbers or information describing some characteristic
Data
Collection of data from every element in a population
Census
Measured characteristic of a sample
Statistic
Data with the property that the number of possible values is either a finite number or a “countable” number, which results in 0 possibilities, or 1 possibility, or 2 possibilities and so on
Discrete
Level of measurement of data; characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless
Ordinal
Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but don’t attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied
Observational
A situation that occurs when the effects from two or more variables cannot be distinguished from each other
Confounding
A group of subjects that are similar in the ways that might affect the outcome of an experiment
Block
Sampling in which data are selected because they are readily available
Convenience
Difference between a sample result and the true population result; results from chance sample fluctuations
Sampling error
Sample of a particular size selected so that every possible sample of the same size has the same chance of being chosen
Simple random sample
Collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on data
Statistics
Subset of a population
Sample
Data consisting of numbers representing counts or measurements
Quantitative
Data resulting from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions, or jumps
Continuous
Level of measurement of data; characterizes data that can be arranged in order and for which differences between data values are meaningful
Interval
Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time
Cross Sectional
Procedure used in experiments whereby the subject doesn’t know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or a placebo
Blinding
Repetition of an experiment
Replication
Sampling in which samples are drawn from each stratum (class)
Stratified
Errors from external factors not related to sampling
Non Sampling error
- Effect that occurs when an untreated subject incorrectly believes that he or she is receiving a real treatment and reports an improvement in symptoms
placebo effect
Complete and entire collection of elements to be studied
population
Measured characteristic of a population
parameter
Data that can be separated into different categories distinguished by some nonnumeric characteristic
Qualitative
- Level of measurement of data; characterizes data that consist of names, labels, or categories only
nominal
Level of measurement of data; characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point
ratio
Study in which data are collected from the past by going back in time (through examination of records, interviews and so on)
retrospective
Procedure used in an experiment whereby the subject doesn’t know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or placebo, and the person administering the treatment also does not know
double blind