Germanic people from Gaul (modern day France and Switzerland)
The Franks
religious communities built by the church for women (nuns)
Convents
religious communities built by the church for men (monks)
Monasteries
Empire begun by Charlemagne
Holy Roman Empire
social structure in medieval Europe including lords, knights, vassals, serfs and sometimes a king.
Feudalism
(in feudalism) the lord’s estate
Manor
complex set of ideals or code by which medieval knights followed.
Chivalry
worldly (involved in politics and other social matters)
Secular
church tax
Tithe
the office of the Pope
The Papacy
Different ranks of Church leaders including priests, bishops, cardinals, and the Pope.
Clergy
a ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials
Lay Investiture
everyday language used by different regions
Vernacular
selling of church positions
Simony
Church law
Canon Law
important religious ceremonies
Sacraments
anyone who does not conform to an established attitude, doctrine, or principle
Heretic
A holy war launched by Pope Urban II to reclaim the Holy Land for Christians
Crusade
group of advisors who acted like a court for the pope
Papal Curia
Unified body of law in England formed by England’s royal judges
Common Law
Legislative group in England originally comprised of two burgesses (citizens of wealth and property) from every borough and two knights from every county
Parliament
Document drawn up by English nobles and approved by King John which guaranteed certain political rights for the people
Magna Carta
Meeting of the three estates in France: 1st was the Church leaders, 2nd was the great lords, and the 3rd was the commoners
Estates-General
people who are sent out to teach their religion
Missionaries
an agreement between the pope and the ruler of a country
Concordat
To exclude a person from church membership
Excommunicated
a noble who served a lord of higher rank
Vassal
land granted a vassal by his lord
Fief
vassals or warriors in armor who on horseback
Knights
peasants who could not the manor, own property, or marry without the lord’s approval
Serfs
the practice of planting crops at different times and leaving some fields unplanted
Crop rotation
groups of businesses made up of tanners, carpenters, bakers and craftspeople
Guilds
religious beliefs that conflict with the Church teachings
Heresy