basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms
states that (1) organisms are made of one or more cells; (2) cells are the basic unit of life; and (3) all cells come only from other cells.
flexible, selectively permeable boundary that helps control what enters and leaves the cell
specialized internal cell structure that carries out specific cell functions
energy-requiring process by which substances move across the plasma membrane against a concentration gradient.
in plants, the rigid barrier that surrounds the outside of the plasma membrane, is made of cellulose, and provides support and protection to the cell.
organelle that plays a role in cell division and is made of microtubules.
double-membrane organelle that captures light energy and converts it to chemical energy through photosynthesis.
short, hairlike projection that functions in cell movement.
semifluid material inside the cell's plasma membrane.
supporting network of protein fibers that provide a framework for the cell within the cytoplasm.
net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
condition of continuous, random movement of particles but no overall change in concentration of materials.
energy-requiring process by which large substances from the outside environment can enter a cell.
highly folded membrane system in eukaryotic cells that is the site for protein and lipid synthesis.
unicellular organism with membrane-bound nucleus and organelles; generally larger and more complex than a prokaryotic cell.
energy-requiring process by which a cell expels wastes and secretes substances at the plasma membrane.
passive transport of ions and small molecules across the plasma membrane by transport proteins.
long, tail-like projection with a whiplike motion that helps a cell move through a watery environment.
a plasma membrane with components constantly in motion, sliding past one another within the lipid bilayer.
flattened stack of tubular membranes that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins into vesicles and transports them to other organelles or out of the cell.
a solution having a higher concentration of solute than inside a cell, which shrinks or shrivels when water leaves the cell by osmosis.
solution that has a lower concentration of solute; more water outside of the cell than inside the cell.
a solution with the same concentration of water and solutes as inside a cell, resulting in the cell retaining its normal shape because there is no net movement of water.
vesicle that uses enzymes to digest excess or worn-out cellular substances.
membrane-bound organelle that converts fuel into energy available to the rest of the cell.
the site of ribosome production within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
in eukaryotic cells, the central membrane-bound organelle that manages cellular functions and contains DNA.
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
plasma membrane layers composed of phospholipid molecules arranged with polar heads facing the outside and nonpolar tails facing the inside.
microscopic, unicellular organism without a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
simple cell organelle that helps manufacture proteins.
property of the plasma membrane that allows it to control movement of substances into or out of the cell.
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