creator of a major Indian and Asian religion
Buddha
Successor of Philip II; successfully conquered Persian Empire prior to his death in 323 B.C.E; attempted to combine Greek and Persian cultures
Alexander the Great
Indo - European nomadic pastoralists who replace Harappan civilization; militarized society
Aryans
Aryan hymns originally transmitted orally but written down in sacred books from the 6th century B.C.E
Vedas
one of the great epic tales from classical India; traces adventures of king Rama and his wife, Sita; written 4th the 2nd centuries B.C.E
Ramayana
clusters of caste groups in Aryan society; four social castes - Brahmans (priests), warriors, merchants, and peasants; beneath four Aryan castes was group of socially untouchable Dasas
Varnas
chief duty of the Aryans; depicted as a colossal, hard - drinking water
Indras
grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; completed quests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire
Ashoka
dynasty that succeeded the Kushans in the 3rd century C.E.; built empire extended to all but the southern regions of Indian subcontinent; less centralized than Maurya Empire
Gupta Dynasty
originally referred to as Brahmans who served as teachers for the princes of the imperial court of the Guptas
Gurus
the successive attachment of the soul to some animate form according to merits earned in previous lives
Reincarnation
written by Vatsayana during the Gupta era; offered instructions on all aspects of life for higher - caste males including grooming, hygiene, etiquette, selection of wives, and love making
Kamasutra
Hindu, god of destruction and reproduction; worshiped
Shiva
the sacred and classical Indian language
sanskrit
Indian epic of war, princely honor, love, and social duty, written down in the last centuries B.C.E
Mahabharata
later books of the Vedas; contained sophisticated and sublime philosophical ideas; utilized by Brahmans to restore religious authority
Upanishads
low social castes in Hindu culture; performed tasks that were considered polluting street sweeping, removal of human waste and tanning
Untouchables
founder of maurya dynasty; established first empire in India subcontinent; first centralized government since Harappan civilization
Chandragupta Maurya
the caste position and career determined by a person's birth
Dharma
political adviser to Chandragupta Maurya; one of the authors of Arthashastra; believed in scientific application of warfare
Kautilya
the sum of a person's actions in this and previous states of existence, viewed as deciding their fate in future existences
Karma
the Buddhist state of enlightenment, a state of university
Nirvana
Chinese class created by the local land holding aristocracy with the office holding shi; superseded shi as governors of China
Scholar Gentry
the brahman, later Hindu, god of sacrifice; widely worshiped
Vishnu