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act of passing from statistical sample data to generalizations usually with calculated degrees of certainty. Inference

a judgement or decision reached by reasoning conclusion

scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a hypothesis, or demonstrate a known fact. experiment

Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities. statistics

a finite or infinite collection of items under consideration population

numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation. parameter

a small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like sample

a three-dimensional representation of a person or thing or of a proposed structure typically on a smaller scale than the original model

individual facts, statistics, or items of information data

imitation or enactment as of something anticipated or in testing simulation

relative possibility that an event will occur as expressed by the ratio of the number of actual occurrences to the total number of possible occurrences probability

to take a general or comprehensive view of or appraise, as a situation, area of study, etc survey

average mean

to form an approximate judgement or opinion regarding the worth Estimate

measure of how close the results are likely to be marginoferror

to seek meaning from and to learn more about observed phenomena as well as to inform decisions and actions statisticalinvestigation

standard score, how far from the mean a data point is zscore

a function that represents the distribution of many random variables as a symmetrical bell-shaped graph normaldistribution

statistical rule for a normal distribution determined with the mean and the standard deviation empiricalrule

a quantity calculated to indicate the extent of deviation for a group as a whole standarddeviation

statistical data type consisting of categorical variables categoricaldata

measures of values or counts and are expressed as numbers. quantativedata

method for graphically depicting groups of numerical data through their Quartiles. boxplot

chart or graph that presents categorical data with rectangular bars with heights or lengths proportional to the values that they represent. bargraph

representation of a distribution consists of group of data points plotted on a simple scale dotplot

supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation hypothesis

to notice or perceive observe

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Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis Data

Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities Statistics

The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn Population

Official count or survey of a population Census

A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like Sample

A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation Parameter

A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data Statistic

Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range Quantitative Data

Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data Qualitative Data

Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number Discrete

Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions Continuous

Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only. Nominal

Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Ordinal

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful Interval

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point. Ratio

Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied Observational Study

Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time Cross Sectional Study

Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome Prospective Study

Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence Retrospective Study

a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable. Confounding

The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not. Blinding

noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment. Placebo Effect

denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test. Double Blind

With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Blocks

the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. Replication

type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Systematic Sampling

One of the non-probability sampling methods Convenience Sampling

Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata Stratified Sampling

sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population Cluster Sampling

the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population Sampling Error

the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling. Nonsampling Error

a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected Random Sample

subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. Simple Random Sample

Subjects that are very carefully chosen Rigorously Controlled Design

subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection Completely Randomized Design

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the entire set of items from which data can be selected Population

divide an ordered data set into 4 equal parts Quartiles

a numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic

information about a product or process, usually in numerical order Data

score that occurs most often Mode

middle score when listed in numerical order Median

average Mean

a subset, or portion, of the population. Sample

the square root of variance Standard Deviation

a census occurs when everyone in the population is contacted Census

a mistake causing results that are not representative of the population Bias

have a finite number of distinct values or counts DiscreteRandom

consists of attributes, labels, or non-numerical entries Qualitative Data

consist of numerical measurements or count Quantitative Data

the difference between the greatest data element and the least data element Range

data that are far away from most of the data points Outliers

the fact that the value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling Sampling Variability

a symmetric distribution can be divided at the center so that each half is a mirror image of the other Symmetry

he average of the squares of the deviations of the observations from their mean Variance

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A set of information data

the range of numbers that includes the largest and smallest values scale

the difference between the largest and smallest values range

the scale divided into equal, non-overlapping parts intervals

a graphical representation of data on a number line line plot

data that is unbroken and numerical continuous

a graph depicting bars that represent non-continuous data bar graph

a bar graph representing continuous data; bars touch histogram

the middle data point when the data are in order median

the sum of the data divided by the number of data mean

the data that occurs most mode

the ratio of the number of successful outcomes to the number of possible outcomes probability

the set of all possible outcomes sample space

the result of a probability experiment outcome

when the result of the first event does not affect the result of the second event independent events

when the result of the first event does affect the result of the second event dependent events

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Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses data

the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data Descriptive statistics

Data can be ordered, and meaningful differences between entries can be calculated Interval

consists of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative data

a subset, or part, of a populatin sample

a numerical description of a population characteristic parameter

Data are qualitative only - categorized by using names, labels, or qualities nominal

the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population Inferential statistics

determines which statistical calculations are meaningful level of measurement

consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries qualitative data

a numerical description of a sample characteristic statistic

the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest population

the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions statistics

data that are qualitative or quantitative - can be arranged in order, or ranked, but differences between data entries are not meaningful ordinal

Data can be set up so that one data entry can be meaningfully expressed as a multiplier of another ratio

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The closeness to the actual or accepted value Accuracy

Indicates the end of a dimension line or leader line Arrowheads

A measuring instrument with 2 adjustable jaws used to measure diameter and thickmess Caliper

A group of values used to analyze the distribution of data Class Interval

To change a unit into a different quantity Convert

Facts and statistics used for reference or analysis Data

A group of individual values that are related in some way Data Set

Having the 3 principles of height depth and width Dimension

A line that represents distance Dimension lines

A statistical chart consisting of data points plotted Dot plot

The rate something occurs over a particular period Frequency

A diagrams howing the relation between 2 variable quantities Graph

A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set data Histogram

An international system of 7 measuring units International System

Adding all the values then dividing by the number of value Mean

The number in the middle Median

To determine the size, amount, or degree of an object Measure

A method of visually displaying a distribution of data values where each value is show as a dot or mark above a number line Line plot

A change or slight difference in condition, amount, or level Variation

A standard quantity in terms of which other quantities may be expressed Unit

A system of measurement used in the United States US Measuring system

The value shown the most Mode

Collections of data Statistics

The distance of a value in a population from the mean value of the population Standard Deviation

The digits in a decimal number that carry meaning contributing to the precision or accuracy of the quantity Significant Digits

A graph in the coordinate plane representing a set of bivariate data Scatter plot

The degree to which repeated measurements show the same result Precision

A function that represents the distribution of variables as a symmetrical bell-shaped graph Normal Distribution

A number value or algebraic equation that is used to control the size or location of a geometric figure Numeric Constraint

A propotion between 2 set of dimensions Scale

An non-govrnment global organizations which is the development of technical standards through consensus ISO

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angles that have a common side and vertex adjacent

The measure in square units of the inside region of a closed two dimensional figure. area

Choosing data that is not random for statistical analysis. bias

a graph using a number line to show distribution of the data set. It is created by finding medians. box plot

100 percent chance of the even happening. certain

The distance around a circle. Circumference

An amount of money that is a percentage of the value involved paid to the employee that made the sale. commission

two angles with combined measurements of 90 degrees. complementary angles

A place containing two perpendicular axis (x and y) intersecting at he origin, the point (0, 0). coordinate plane

a shape created when a 3D figure is cut parallel or perpendicular to the base. cross section

A straight line passing through the center of a circle touching two points on the circumference. diameter

The answer to a subtraction problem. difference

The number being divided. dividend

The number by which another number is divided, divisor

Close to a 50 percent chance of the event happening. equally likely

A mathematical statement that includes and equal sign to show that two expressions are equal. equation

The likelihood of an even happening is based on experience and observation rather than on theory. experimental probability

the number of times a base occurs as a factor. exponent

One or a group of mathematical symbols representing a number or quantity. expression

a whole number that multiplies with another number to make a third number. factor

Also known as a tip. gratuity

The second place to the right of the decimal point hundredths place

A zero percent chance of the event happening. impossible

A positive number, a negative number or zero NOT a decimal or fraction. integer

A measure of spread on a box plot equal to the difference between the upper limit of the lower quarter and the lower limit of the upper quartile. Interquartile range

a non-terminating or non-repeating decimal. irrational

More than a 50 percent chance of the event happening. likely

A percentage added onto the price of an item to make a profit. markup

Find the mean. Create a table to determine each point's distance from the mean. Find the mean of the distances. mean absolute deviation

The middle number when a set of data is put in order. median

The number that appears the most in a data set. mode

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Tells how many standard deviations a value is from the mean. zscore

The value found by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation. standardizedvalue

The process of multiplying each value by a constant that multiplies both the measures of position and measures of spread by that constant. rescaling

The square root of the variance. standarddeviation

Numerical attribute of a model. parameter

Type of Normal model with mean 0 and standard deviation 1. standard

Display to help assess whether a distribution of data is approximately Normal. normalprobabilityplot

Numerical attribute of a set of data. statistic

In a Normal model, about 68% of the values within 1 standard deviation of the mean, about 95% within 2 standard deviations, and about 99.7% within 3 standard deviations. empiricalrule

model used for certain unimodal, symmetric distributions. normal

The sum of the squared deviations from the mean, divided by the count minus one. variance

center of the Normal model. mean

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The degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to the actual (or accepted) value. Accuracy

Used to indicate the end of a dimension line or leader. Arrowheads

A measuring instrument having two adjustable jaws typically used to measure diameter or thickness. Caliper

A group of values that is used to analyze the distribution of data. Class Interval

To change money, stocks, or units in which a quantity is expressed into others of a different kind. Convert

Facts and statistics used for reference or analysis. Data

A group of individual values or bits of information that are related in some way or have some common characteristic or attribute. Data Set

A measurable extent, such as the three principal dimensions of an object as in width, height, and depth. Dimension

A line which represents distance. Dimension Lines

See line plot. Dot Plot

The rate at which something occurs over a particular period or in a given sample. Frequency

A diagram showing the relation between variable quantities, typically of two variables measured along a pair of lines at right angles. Graph

A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data. Histogram

A non-governmental global organization whose principal activity is the development of technical standards through consensus. International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

An international system of units of measurement consisting of seven base units. International System of Units (SI)

A method of visually displaying a distribution of data values where each data value is shown as a dot or mark above a number line. Also known as a dot plot. Line Plot

A measure of center in a set of numerical data, computed by adding the values in a list and then dividing by the number of values in the list. Mean

To determine the size, amount, or degree of an object by comparison with a standard unit. Measure

A measure of center in a set of numerical data. The median of a list of values is the value appearing at the center of a sorted version of the list – or the mean of the two central values if the list contains an even number of values. Median

The value that occurs most frequently in a given data set. Mode

A function that represents the distribution of variables as a symmetrical bell-shaped graph. Normal Distribution

A number value or algebraic equation that is used to control the size or location of a geometric figure. Numeric Constraint

The degree to which repeated measurements show the same result. Precision

1. A straight-edged strip of rigid material marked at regular intervals and used to measure distances. 2. A proportion between two sets of dimensions used in developing accurate, larger or smaller prototypes, or models of design ideas. Scale

A graph in the coordinate plane representing a set of bivariate data. Scatter Plot

The digits in a decimal number that carry meaning contributing to the precision or accuracy of the quantity. Significant Digits

The distance of a value in a population (or sample) from the mean value of the population (or sample). Standard Deviation

Collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on data. Statistics

A standard quantity in terms of which other quantities may be expressed. Unit

System of measurement used in the United States. US Customary Measurement System

A change or slight difference in condition, amount, or level. Variation

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the value that lies in the middle of the data when arranged in ascending order median

the most frequent observation of the variable that occurs in the data set mode

the science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing information to draw conclusions or answer questions statistics

a person or object that is a member of the population being studied individual

a subset of the population that is being studied sample

a numerical summary of a population parameter

occurs when the effects of two or more explanatory variables are not separated confounding

a graph constructed by drawing rectangles for each class of data histogram

the degree to which the data are spread out dispersion

: the difference between the largest and the smallest data value range

the square of the standard deviation variance

the distance that a data value is from the mean in terms of the number of standard deviations zscore

a statement regarding a characteristic of one or more populations hypothesis

each repetition of an experiment trial

serve as cutoff points for determining outliers fences

a number computed by adding all the values of the variable in the data set and dividing by the number of observations mean

: the characteristics of the individuals within the populations variables

The list of observed values for a variable data

a type of diagram that lists the equally likely outcomes of an experiment using branches tree

a type of diagram that represents events as circles enclosed in a rectangle venn

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chance of something happening Probability

total number of outcomes samplespace

subset of the outcomes (portion of the total) event

the set of elements that belong to one or both sets. union

elements common in all sets Intersection

elements that are not in the set compliment

the occurrence of one event does not affect the other Independent Events

An event in which more than one outcome is possible compound event

In a normal curve, the 1st standard deviations are 68%, 2nd 95%, 3rd 99.7% Imperical rule

Data Curve showing usual probability Normal Distribution

average Mean

A numerical quantity measuring some aspect of a population of scores Parameter

A numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample Statistics

Gives the number of how many standard deviations x lies from the distribution mean Zscore

Favors a certain outcome bias

When a sample is chosen from an entire group at random Cluster Sample

numerical data quantitative

categorical data qualitative

type of sample preventing bias random

way to gather information by asking people questions survey

sample of population favors a certain circumstance convenience sample

Process of applying a treatment to a sample group Experiment

the likelihood of an event based on mathematical reasoning theoretical probability

the actual probability that occurs in an experiment experimental probability

probability that event a and b will both occur intersection