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The theory, methods, and practice of forming judgments about the parameters of a population and the reliability of statistical relationships. Inference

Is another word for outcome Conclusion

Chart that uses bars to show comparisons between categories of data. Bargraph

Graph looks like a rectangle with lines extending from the top and bottom. BOXPLOT

Represents characteristics such as a person's gender, marital status, hometown, or the types of movies they like. CATEGORICALDATA

Individual pieces of factual information recorded and used for the purpose of analysis. DATA

Is a graphical display of data using dots. DOTPLOT

States that for a normal distribution, nearly all of the data will fall within three standard deviations of the mean. EMPIRICALRULE

Calculate the value of some property of a population from observations of a sample drawn from the population, a guess. ESTIMATE

A controlled study in which the researcher attempts to understand cause-and-effect relationships. EXPERIMENT

Is an assumption about a population parameter. This assumption may or may not be true. HYPOTHESIS

Expresses the maximum expected difference between the true population parameter and a sample estimate of that parameter. MARGINOFERROR

Average that is used to derive the central tendency of the data in question. MEAN

Known as tests that can be used to analyze data. MODEL

Showing that data near the mean are more frequent in occurrence than data far from the mean. In graph form it appears as a bell curve. NORMALDISTRIBUTION

Act of noticing something or a judgment or inference from something seen. OBSERVE

Any numerical quantity that characterizes a given population or some aspect of it. PARAMETER

Total set of observations that can be made. POPULATION

A measure quantifying the likelihood that events will occur. PROBABILITY

Is data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range. QUANTITATIVEDATA

A set of observations drawn from a population. SAMPLE

Process of imitating a real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas. SIMULATION

Is a measure of how spread out numbers are. STANDARDDEVIATION

Part of an information gathering and learning process which is undertaken to seek meaning from. STATISTICALINVESTIGATION

An investigation about the characteristics of a given population by means of collecting data from a sample of that population. SURVEY

A numerical measurement used in statistics of a value's relationship to the mean (average) of a group of values. ZSCORE

Collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities, especially for the purpose of inferring proportions in a whole from those in a representative sample. Statistics

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Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis Data

Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities Statistics

The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn Population

Official count or survey of a population Census

A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like Sample

A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation Parameter

A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data Statistic

Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range Quantitative Data

Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data Qualitative Data

Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number Discrete

Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions Continuous

Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only. Nominal

Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Ordinal

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful Interval

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point. Ratio

Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied Observational Study

Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time Cross Sectional Study

Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome Prospective Study

Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence Retrospective Study

a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable. Confounding

The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not. Blinding

noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment. Placebo Effect

denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test. Double Blind

With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Blocks

the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. Replication

type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Systematic Sampling

One of the non-probability sampling methods Convenience Sampling

Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata Stratified Sampling

sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population Cluster Sampling

the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population Sampling Error

the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling. Nonsampling Error

a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected Random Sample

subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. Simple Random Sample

Subjects that are very carefully chosen Rigorously Controlled Design

subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection Completely Randomized Design

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A ______ is a numerical facsimile or representation of a real-world phenomenon. simulation

_____ are measurements or observations from which the entire population are used. census

A _____ is a group of individuals sharing some common features the might affect the treatment. Block

A ____ is a list of individuals from which a sample is actually selected. Sampling Frame

A ____ is the result of poor sample design, sloppy data collection, faulty measuring instruments, bias in questionaries and so on. Non sampling Error

____ results from omitting population members from the sample frame. Over coverage

In _____, are only from some of the individuals of interest. sample data

A ____ is a numerical measure that describes an aspect of the population. parameter

____ sampling uses a variety of smapling methods to create successively smaller groups at each stage. multistage clustering

Population divided into subgroups. Stratified

A measurement or observation from which only a part of the population is used. sample

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Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses. Data

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions Statistics

The collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest Population

A subset of a population Sample

A numerical description of a population characteristic Parameter

A numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic

The branch of statistics that involves the organization, summmarization, and display of data Descriptive Statistic

Consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries Qualitative Data

Consist of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative Data

Occurs when an experiment cannot tell the difference between the effects of the different factors on a variable. Confounding Variable

A technique where the subject does not know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or a placebo Blinding

A process of randomly assigning subjects to different treatment groups. Randomization

The repetition of an experiment using a large group of subjects. Replication

A count or measure of an entire population. Census

On in which every member of he population has an equal chance of being selected. Random Sample

Depending on the focus of the study, members of the population are divided into two or more subsets Stratified Sample

Divide the population into groups and select the members in one or more groups Cluster Sample

Each member of the population is assigned a number Systematic Sample

Convenience Sample Convenience Sample

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the entire set of items from which data can be selected Population

divide an ordered data set into 4 equal parts Quartiles

a numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic

information about a product or process, usually in numerical order Data

score that occurs most often Mode

middle score when listed in numerical order Median

average Mean

a subset, or portion, of the population. Sample

the square root of variance Standard Deviation

a census occurs when everyone in the population is contacted Census

a mistake causing results that are not representative of the population Bias

have a finite number of distinct values or counts DiscreteRandom

consists of attributes, labels, or non-numerical entries Qualitative Data

consist of numerical measurements or count Quantitative Data

the difference between the greatest data element and the least data element Range

data that are far away from most of the data points Outliers

the fact that the value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling Sampling Variability

a symmetric distribution can be divided at the center so that each half is a mirror image of the other Symmetry

he average of the squares of the deviations of the observations from their mean Variance

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the value that lies in the middle of the data when arranged in ascending order median

the most frequent observation of the variable that occurs in the data set mode

the science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing information to draw conclusions or answer questions statistics

a person or object that is a member of the population being studied individual

a subset of the population that is being studied sample

a numerical summary of a population parameter

occurs when the effects of two or more explanatory variables are not separated confounding

a graph constructed by drawing rectangles for each class of data histogram

the degree to which the data are spread out dispersion

: the difference between the largest and the smallest data value range

the square of the standard deviation variance

the distance that a data value is from the mean in terms of the number of standard deviations zscore

a statement regarding a characteristic of one or more populations hypothesis

each repetition of an experiment trial

serve as cutoff points for determining outliers fences

a number computed by adding all the values of the variable in the data set and dividing by the number of observations mean

: the characteristics of the individuals within the populations variables

The list of observed values for a variable data

a type of diagram that lists the equally likely outcomes of an experiment using branches tree

a type of diagram that represents events as circles enclosed in a rectangle venn

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numbers or information describing some characteristic data

collection of data from every element of a population census

measured characteristic of a sample stastistic

data where the number of possibilities is finite discrete

characterizes data may be arranged in order ordinal

data you find and observe observational

situation occurs when effects of 2 or more variables can not be distinguished from each other confounding

groups of subjects that are similar blocks

data is readily available convience

difference between population result and true population samplingerror

sample of particular size simplerandomsample

methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, summerizing, etc. statistics

subset of a population sample

observations made by counting quantitative

infinatley many possible values continuous

level of measurement interval

data is observed from one point of time crosssectional

experiments undergo a placebo blinding

repetition of an expiriment replication

samples are drawn from groups stratified

untreated subject believes they are under treatment placeboeffect

entire collection of elements to be studied population

measured characteristics parameter

observation using senses qualitative

characterizes data by names and labels nomial

data that can be arranged in order like a fraction ratio

data is collected from the past retrospective

subject and person giving subject treatment are under a placebo doubleblind

every (x) element is selected systematic

randomly selecting subjects in a population cluster

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A number that describes some characteristic of a sample Statistic

A number that describes some characteristic of the population Parameter

The value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling SamplingVariability

Distribution of values taken by the statistics in samples of the same size from the same population SamplingDistribution

Statistic used to measure a parameter if the mean of the sample distribution is equal to the true value of the parameter UnbiasedEstimator

Gives the values of the variable for all the individuals in the population PopulationDistribution

When n is large,(n>30), the sampling distribution is approx. Normal CentralLimitTheorem

Number of subjects being recorded in one session, represented by “n” SampleSize

Parameter that describes a percentage value associated with a population PopulationProportion

Used to describe shape for sample proportions, both np> or =10 and n(1-p)> or =10 LargeCounts

The mean of the distribution, Mp for Sample Proportions and M for Sample Means Center

Quantitative Data represented by “M”. The average of everyone MeanofPopulation

Quantitative Data represented by the symbol “x bar”. The average of the data collected SampleMean

Categorical Data represented by “p hat”, describes a percentage value associated with a sample StatisticProportion

The center of a sampling distribution is not equal to the true value of the parameter BiasEstimator

Used to determine spread for both Sample Proportions and Sample Means. Also uses Stnd. Dev. TenPercentCondition

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Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses data

the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data Descriptive statistics

Data can be ordered, and meaningful differences between entries can be calculated Interval

consists of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative data

a subset, or part, of a populatin sample

a numerical description of a population characteristic parameter

Data are qualitative only - categorized by using names, labels, or qualities nominal

the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population Inferential statistics

determines which statistical calculations are meaningful level of measurement

consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries qualitative data

a numerical description of a sample characteristic statistic

the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest population

the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions statistics

data that are qualitative or quantitative - can be arranged in order, or ranked, but differences between data entries are not meaningful ordinal

Data can be set up so that one data entry can be meaningfully expressed as a multiplier of another ratio

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Difference between observed value and expected value Residual

watching subjects or reviewing records of subjects to obtain information about the population observationalstudy

subjects of an experiment or survey individuals

variable that represents a numeric quantity quantitative

a graphic organization of data that includes 2 columns and a key stemplot

descriptor for the variety of data, also describes the difference between max and min spread

data values that are more than 2 standard deviations from the mean outliers

the average value of a distribution mean

the center value of a data distribution median

a descriptor used for a data distribution when the graph looks roughly the same on both sides of the mean symmetric

when the data tails to the right or left, pulling the mean toward the tail skewed

25% of the data lies below this point firstquartile

a graphical display used to show a five number summary boxplot

the density curve that is single peaked with the mean at its center normal

graphical display of the relationship between 2 quantitative variables scatterplot

descriptor for the direction of a scatter plot that rises as its explanatory variable increases positive

numeric value describing the relationship between 2 quantitative variable in a scatter plot correlation

a least squares regression line is used to make a _____ prediction

a sample survey where subjects choose themselves to participate voluntaryresponse

a sample chosen by by chance SRS

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cumulative frequency

event

expected value

frequency histogram

frequency polygon

interquartile range

median

midpoint

mode

outlier

parameter

qualitative data

quantitative data

random variable

range

sample

sample space

statistic

statistics

weighted mean