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the process of using data analysis to deduce properties of an underlying probability distribution Inference

validity is the degree to which conclusions about the relationship among variables based on the data are correct or "reasonable". Conclusion

n experiment is a controlled study in which the researcher attempts to understand cause-and-effect relationships. Experiment

is a branch of applied mathematics concerned with collecting, organizing, and interpreting data. Statistics

is a discrete group of people, animals or things that can be identified by at least one common characteristic for the purposes of data collection and analysis. Population

is something in an equation that is passed on in an equation Parameter

a sample refers to a set of observations drawn from a population. Often, it is necessary to use samples for research, because it is impractical to study the whole population. Sample

a mathematical model that embodies a set of statistical assumptions concerning the generation of sample data. Model

are the actual pieces of information that you collect through your study. Data

is a way to model random events, such that simulated outcomes closely match real-world outcomes. Simulation

the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur in a Random Experiment. Probability

A field of applied statistics of human research surveys, survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection Survey

the "average" you're used to, where you add up all the numbers and then divide by the number of numbers. Mean

Means to find something close to the correct answer Estimate

tells you how many percentage points your results will differ from the real population value Margin of error

part of an information gathering and learning process which is undertaken to seek meaning from and to learn more about observed phenomena as well as to inform decisions and actions. statistical investigation

the standard score is the signed fractional number of standard deviations Z score

is a probability function that describes how the values of a variable are distributed. Normal distribution

also known as the empirical rule, is a shorthand used to remember the percentage of values Empirical rule

a measure of the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values. Standard deviation

is the statistical data type consisting of categorical variables or of data that has been converted into that form categorical data

is numerical and acquired through counting or measuring and contrasted with qualitative data sets quantitative data

s numerical and acquired through counting or measuring and contrasted with qualitative data sets quantitative data

is a method for graphically depicting groups of numerical data through their quartiles box plot

is pictorial representation of statistical data in such a way that length of the rectangles bar graph

is a statistical chart consisting of data points plotted on a fairly simple scale, typically using filled in circles. dot plot

is an assumption about a population parameter. hypothesis

is a value of something of interest you're measuring or counting during a study or experiment observe

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Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis Data

Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities Statistics

The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn Population

Official count or survey of a population Census

A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like Sample

A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation Parameter

A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data Statistic

Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range Quantitative Data

Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data Qualitative Data

Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number Discrete

Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions Continuous

Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only. Nominal

Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Ordinal

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful Interval

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point. Ratio

Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied Observational Study

Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time Cross Sectional Study

Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome Prospective Study

Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence Retrospective Study

a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable. Confounding

The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not. Blinding

noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment. Placebo Effect

denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test. Double Blind

With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Blocks

the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. Replication

type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Systematic Sampling

One of the non-probability sampling methods Convenience Sampling

Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata Stratified Sampling

sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population Cluster Sampling

the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population Sampling Error

the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling. Nonsampling Error

a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected Random Sample

subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. Simple Random Sample

Subjects that are very carefully chosen Rigorously Controlled Design

subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection Completely Randomized Design

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Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses. Data

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions Statistics

The collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest Population

A subset of a population Sample

A numerical description of a population characteristic Parameter

A numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic

The branch of statistics that involves the organization, summmarization, and display of data Descriptive Statistic

Consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries Qualitative Data

Consist of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative Data

Occurs when an experiment cannot tell the difference between the effects of the different factors on a variable. Confounding Variable

A technique where the subject does not know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or a placebo Blinding

A process of randomly assigning subjects to different treatment groups. Randomization

The repetition of an experiment using a large group of subjects. Replication

A count or measure of an entire population. Census

On in which every member of he population has an equal chance of being selected. Random Sample

Depending on the focus of the study, members of the population are divided into two or more subsets Stratified Sample

Divide the population into groups and select the members in one or more groups Cluster Sample

Each member of the population is assigned a number Systematic Sample

Convenience Sample Convenience Sample

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the entire set of items from which data can be selected Population

divide an ordered data set into 4 equal parts Quartiles

a numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic

information about a product or process, usually in numerical order Data

score that occurs most often Mode

middle score when listed in numerical order Median

average Mean

a subset, or portion, of the population. Sample

the square root of variance Standard Deviation

a census occurs when everyone in the population is contacted Census

a mistake causing results that are not representative of the population Bias

have a finite number of distinct values or counts DiscreteRandom

consists of attributes, labels, or non-numerical entries Qualitative Data

consist of numerical measurements or count Quantitative Data

the difference between the greatest data element and the least data element Range

data that are far away from most of the data points Outliers

the fact that the value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling Sampling Variability

a symmetric distribution can be divided at the center so that each half is a mirror image of the other Symmetry

he average of the squares of the deviations of the observations from their mean Variance

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Group of people with certain specific characteristics Population

A group of people who represent a larger population Sample

A sample that accurately reflects the characteristics Representative sample

A written set of questions to be answered by a research participant Questionnaire

A survey method in which a trained researcher ask questions and record the answers Interview

Research method in which people respond to questions Survey

Facts or statistics Data

Questions a person must answer by choosing from a limited, set of responses Closed ended questions

Questions a person is to answer in his or her own words Open ended questions

Intensive study of a single group Case study

Research that takes place in a natural setting Field research

Using precollected information for data collection and research purposes Secondary analysis

The belief that events occur in predictable ways Causation

A characteristic that is subject to change Variable

A characteristic that can be measured numerically Quantitative variable

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A set of information data

the range of numbers that includes the largest and smallest values scale

the difference between the largest and smallest values range

the scale divided into equal, non-overlapping parts intervals

a graphical representation of data on a number line line plot

data that is unbroken and numerical continuous

a graph depicting bars that represent non-continuous data bar graph

a bar graph representing continuous data; bars touch histogram

the middle data point when the data are in order median

the sum of the data divided by the number of data mean

the data that occurs most mode

the ratio of the number of successful outcomes to the number of possible outcomes probability

the set of all possible outcomes sample space

the result of a probability experiment outcome

when the result of the first event does not affect the result of the second event independent events

when the result of the first event does affect the result of the second event dependent events

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Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses data

the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data Descriptive statistics

Data can be ordered, and meaningful differences between entries can be calculated Interval

consists of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative data

a subset, or part, of a populatin sample

a numerical description of a population characteristic parameter

Data are qualitative only - categorized by using names, labels, or qualities nominal

the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population Inferential statistics

determines which statistical calculations are meaningful level of measurement

consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries qualitative data

a numerical description of a sample characteristic statistic

the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest population

the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions statistics

data that are qualitative or quantitative - can be arranged in order, or ranked, but differences between data entries are not meaningful ordinal

Data can be set up so that one data entry can be meaningfully expressed as a multiplier of another ratio

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Section of a research paper that discusses the literature used and is organized through themes Literature Review

Section of a research paper that introduces the topic and tells of its importance introduction

Type of sampling sometimes known as grab, accidental, or opportunity sampling Convenience

Sampling used for hard-to-reach populations snowball

A condition to causality where the IV comes before DV Time Order

Results when a scale produces consistent results Reliability

Part of the methods sections that explains how to go about collecting data Procedure

Also known as a questionnaire Survey

Data that is open ended, in-depth, and insight-oriented Qualitative

This has to be present in an experiement Intervention

Level of measurement where distance has no meaning Interval

Type of survey involving closed ended questions with forced choices Structured

Observation where researchers remains apart from the observed Pure

People tend to change behavior when they know they are being observed Reactivity

Data that is consistent and standardized and uses large samples in its research Quantitative

Type of criterion validity that has the ability to predict future events Predictive

Only chance determines which elements will make it into the sampe Random

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The closeness to the actual or accepted value Accuracy

Indicates the end of a dimension line or leader line Arrowheads

A measuring instrument with 2 adjustable jaws used to measure diameter and thickmess Caliper

A group of values used to analyze the distribution of data Class Interval

To change a unit into a different quantity Convert

Facts and statistics used for reference or analysis Data

A group of individual values that are related in some way Data Set

Having the 3 principles of height depth and width Dimension

A line that represents distance Dimension lines

A statistical chart consisting of data points plotted Dot plot

The rate something occurs over a particular period Frequency

A diagrams howing the relation between 2 variable quantities Graph

A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set data Histogram

An international system of 7 measuring units International System

Adding all the values then dividing by the number of value Mean

The number in the middle Median

To determine the size, amount, or degree of an object Measure

A method of visually displaying a distribution of data values where each value is show as a dot or mark above a number line Line plot

A change or slight difference in condition, amount, or level Variation

A standard quantity in terms of which other quantities may be expressed Unit

A system of measurement used in the United States US Measuring system

The value shown the most Mode

Collections of data Statistics

The distance of a value in a population from the mean value of the population Standard Deviation

The digits in a decimal number that carry meaning contributing to the precision or accuracy of the quantity Significant Digits

A graph in the coordinate plane representing a set of bivariate data Scatter plot

The degree to which repeated measurements show the same result Precision

A function that represents the distribution of variables as a symmetrical bell-shaped graph Normal Distribution

A number value or algebraic equation that is used to control the size or location of a geometric figure Numeric Constraint

A propotion between 2 set of dimensions Scale

An non-govrnment global organizations which is the development of technical standards through consensus ISO

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A characteristic that changes between individuals, such as gender, age, intelligence, weight) Variable

A study design in which a psychologist or therapist observes one person over a long period of time Case study

An observational study in which the researcher unobtrusively observes and records behavior in the real world naturalistic

A research sample that accuratel reflects the population of people one is studying Representative

A study which does not show causation, but does measure 2 or more variables and their relationship with one another correlational

A research technique for combining all research results on one question and drawing a conclusion meta-analysis

(2 words seperated by a space)A measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables or the extent of an experimental effect effect size

In an experiment, the outcome or response to an experimental manipulation dependent variable

A variable that is manipulated by an experimenter under controlled conditions to determine whether it is caused by the predicted outcome of an experiment independent

A variable whose influence cannot be separated from the independent variable being manipulated confounding

A substance or treatment that appears identical to the actual treatment but lacks the active substance placebo

The method used to assign participants to different research conditions so that all participants have the same chance of being in any specific group random

A group of research participants who are treated exactly the same way as the experimental group, except that they do not receive the independent variable or treatment. control

A study ub which neither the participants nor the researchers administering the treatment know who has been assigned to the experimental or control group double-blind

An explanation of the purposes of the study following data collection debriefing

The score that separates the lower half of the scores from the upper half median

(2 words) A statistical measure of how much the scores in a sample vary around the mean standard deviation

The most commonly occurring score or value mode

A plotted curve that shows a normal distribution of scores Bell

A statistic that compares two means to see whether they could come from the same population t-test

The arithmetic average of a series of numbers mean

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numbers or information describing some characteristic data

collection of data from every element of a population census

measured characteristic of a sample stastistic

data where the number of possibilities is finite discrete

characterizes data may be arranged in order ordinal

data you find and observe observational

situation occurs when effects of 2 or more variables can not be distinguished from each other confounding

groups of subjects that are similar blocks

data is readily available convience

difference between population result and true population samplingerror

sample of particular size simplerandomsample

methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, summerizing, etc. statistics

subset of a population sample

observations made by counting quantitative

infinatley many possible values continuous

level of measurement interval

data is observed from one point of time crosssectional

experiments undergo a placebo blinding

repetition of an expiriment replication

samples are drawn from groups stratified

untreated subject believes they are under treatment placeboeffect

entire collection of elements to be studied population

measured characteristics parameter

observation using senses qualitative

characterizes data by names and labels nomial

data that can be arranged in order like a fraction ratio

data is collected from the past retrospective

subject and person giving subject treatment are under a placebo doubleblind

every (x) element is selected systematic

randomly selecting subjects in a population cluster