# Cross word puzzle.

Type
Crossword
Description

the process of using data analysis to deduce properties of an underlying probability distribution Inference
validity is the degree to which conclusions about the relationship among variables based on the data are correct or "reasonable". Conclusion
n experiment is a controlled study in which the researcher attempts to understand cause-and-effect relationships. Experiment
is a branch of applied mathematics concerned with collecting, organizing, and interpreting data. Statistics
is a discrete group of people, animals or things that can be identified by at least one common characteristic for the purposes of data collection and analysis. Population
is something in an equation that is passed on in an equation Parameter
a sample refers to a set of observations drawn from a population. Often, it is necessary to use samples for research, because it is impractical to study the whole population. Sample
a mathematical model that embodies a set of statistical assumptions concerning the generation of sample data. Model
are the actual pieces of information that you collect through your study. Data
is a way to model random events, such that simulated outcomes closely match real-world outcomes. Simulation
the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur in a Random Experiment. Probability
A field of applied statistics of human research surveys, survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection Survey
the "average" you're used to, where you add up all the numbers and then divide by the number of numbers. Mean
Means to find something close to the correct answer Estimate
tells you how many percentage points your results will differ from the real population value Margin of error
part of an information gathering and learning process which is undertaken to seek meaning from and to learn more about observed phenomena as well as to inform decisions and actions. statistical investigation
the standard score is the signed fractional number of standard deviations Z score
is a probability function that describes how the values of a variable are distributed. Normal distribution
also known as the empirical rule, is a shorthand used to remember the percentage of values Empirical rule
a measure of the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values. Standard deviation
is the statistical data type consisting of categorical variables or of data that has been converted into that form categorical data
is numerical and acquired through counting or measuring and contrasted with qualitative data sets quantitative data
s numerical and acquired through counting or measuring and contrasted with qualitative data sets quantitative data
is a method for graphically depicting groups of numerical data through their quartiles box plot
is pictorial representation of statistical data in such a way that length of the rectangles bar graph
is a statistical chart consisting of data points plotted on a fairly simple scale, typically using filled in circles. dot plot
is an assumption about a population parameter. hypothesis
is a value of something of interest you're measuring or counting during a study or experiment observe

## Statistics Vocabulary Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis Data
Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities Statistics
The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn Population
Official count or survey of a population Census
A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like Sample
A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation Parameter
A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data Statistic
Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range Quantitative Data
Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data Qualitative Data
Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number Discrete
Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions Continuous
Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only. Nominal
Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Ordinal
Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful Interval
Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point. Ratio
Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied Observational Study
Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time Cross Sectional Study
Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome Prospective Study
Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence Retrospective Study
a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable. Confounding
The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not. Blinding
noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment. Placebo Effect
denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test. Double Blind
With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Blocks
the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. Replication
type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Systematic Sampling
One of the non-probability sampling methods Convenience Sampling
Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata Stratified Sampling
sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population Cluster Sampling
the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population Sampling Error
the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling. Nonsampling Error
a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected Random Sample
subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. Simple Random Sample
Subjects that are very carefully chosen Rigorously Controlled Design
subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection Completely Randomized Design

## Chapter 1: Statistics Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses. Data
The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions Statistics
The collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest Population
A subset of a population Sample
A numerical description of a population characteristic Parameter
A numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic
The branch of statistics that involves the organization, summmarization, and display of data Descriptive Statistic
Consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries Qualitative Data
Consist of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative Data
Occurs when an experiment cannot tell the difference between the effects of the different factors on a variable. Confounding Variable
A technique where the subject does not know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or a placebo Blinding
A process of randomly assigning subjects to different treatment groups. Randomization
The repetition of an experiment using a large group of subjects. Replication
A count or measure of an entire population. Census
On in which every member of he population has an equal chance of being selected. Random Sample
Depending on the focus of the study, members of the population are divided into two or more subsets Stratified Sample
Divide the population into groups and select the members in one or more groups Cluster Sample
Each member of the population is assigned a number Systematic Sample
Convenience Sample Convenience Sample

## Unit 7 Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

the entire set of items from which data can be selected Population
divide an ordered data set into 4 equal parts Quartiles
a numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic
information about a product or process, usually in numerical order Data
score that occurs most often Mode
middle score when listed in numerical order Median
average Mean
a subset, or portion, of the population. Sample
the square root of variance Standard Deviation
a census occurs when everyone in the population is contacted Census
a mistake causing results that are not representative of the population Bias
have a finite number of distinct values or counts DiscreteRandom
consists of attributes, labels, or non-numerical entries Qualitative Data
consist of numerical measurements or count Quantitative Data
the difference between the greatest data element and the least data element Range
data that are far away from most of the data points Outliers
the fact that the value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling Sampling Variability
a symmetric distribution can be divided at the center so that each half is a mirror image of the other Symmetry
he average of the squares of the deviations of the observations from their mean Variance

## Chapter 2: Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

Group of people with certain specific characteristics Population
A group of people who represent a larger population Sample
A sample that accurately reflects the characteristics Representative sample
A written set of questions to be answered by a research participant Questionnaire
A survey method in which a trained researcher ask questions and record the answers Interview
Research method in which people respond to questions Survey
Facts or statistics Data
Questions a person must answer by choosing from a limited, set of responses Closed ended questions
Questions a person is to answer in his or her own words Open ended questions
Intensive study of a single group Case study
Research that takes place in a natural setting Field research
Using precollected information for data collection and research purposes Secondary analysis
The belief that events occur in predictable ways Causation
A characteristic that is subject to change Variable
A characteristic that can be measured numerically Quantitative variable

## Probability and Statistics Terms Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A set of information data
the range of numbers that includes the largest and smallest values scale
the difference between the largest and smallest values range
the scale divided into equal, non-overlapping parts intervals
a graphical representation of data on a number line line plot
data that is unbroken and numerical continuous
a graph depicting bars that represent non-continuous data bar graph
a bar graph representing continuous data; bars touch histogram
the middle data point when the data are in order median
the sum of the data divided by the number of data mean
the data that occurs most mode
the ratio of the number of successful outcomes to the number of possible outcomes probability
the set of all possible outcomes sample space
the result of a probability experiment outcome
when the result of the first event does not affect the result of the second event independent events
when the result of the first event does affect the result of the second event dependent events

## Elementary Statistics Chapter 1.1 and 1.2 Vocabulary Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses data
the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data Descriptive statistics
Data can be ordered, and meaningful differences between entries can be calculated Interval
consists of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative data
a subset, or part, of a populatin sample
a numerical description of a population characteristic parameter
Data are qualitative only - categorized by using names, labels, or qualities nominal
the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population Inferential statistics
determines which statistical calculations are meaningful level of measurement
consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries qualitative data
a numerical description of a sample characteristic statistic
the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest population
the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions statistics
data that are qualitative or quantitative - can be arranged in order, or ranked, but differences between data entries are not meaningful ordinal
Data can be set up so that one data entry can be meaningfully expressed as a multiplier of another ratio

## Research Methods Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Section of a research paper that discusses the literature used and is organized through themes Literature Review
Section of a research paper that introduces the topic and tells of its importance introduction
Type of sampling sometimes known as grab, accidental, or opportunity sampling Convenience
Sampling used for hard-to-reach populations snowball
A condition to causality where the IV comes before DV Time Order
Results when a scale produces consistent results Reliability
Part of the methods sections that explains how to go about collecting data Procedure
Also known as a questionnaire Survey
Data that is open ended, in-depth, and insight-oriented Qualitative
This has to be present in an experiement Intervention
Level of measurement where distance has no meaning Interval
Type of survey involving closed ended questions with forced choices Structured
Observation where researchers remains apart from the observed Pure
People tend to change behavior when they know they are being observed Reactivity
Data that is consistent and standardized and uses large samples in its research Quantitative
Type of criterion validity that has the ability to predict future events Predictive
Only chance determines which elements will make it into the sampe Random

## I.E.D Unit 3 key terms Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

The closeness to the actual or accepted value Accuracy
A measuring instrument with 2 adjustable jaws used to measure diameter and thickmess Caliper
A group of values used to analyze the distribution of data Class Interval
To change a unit into a different quantity Convert
Facts and statistics used for reference or analysis Data
A group of individual values that are related in some way Data Set
Having the 3 principles of height depth and width Dimension
A line that represents distance Dimension lines
A statistical chart consisting of data points plotted Dot plot
The rate something occurs over a particular period Frequency
A diagrams howing the relation between 2 variable quantities Graph
A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set data Histogram
An international system of 7 measuring units International System
Adding all the values then dividing by the number of value Mean
The number in the middle Median
To determine the size, amount, or degree of an object Measure
A method of visually displaying a distribution of data values where each value is show as a dot or mark above a number line Line plot
A change or slight difference in condition, amount, or level Variation
A standard quantity in terms of which other quantities may be expressed Unit
A system of measurement used in the United States US Measuring system
The value shown the most Mode
Collections of data Statistics
The distance of a value in a population from the mean value of the population Standard Deviation
The digits in a decimal number that carry meaning contributing to the precision or accuracy of the quantity Significant Digits
A graph in the coordinate plane representing a set of bivariate data Scatter plot
The degree to which repeated measurements show the same result Precision
A function that represents the distribution of variables as a symmetrical bell-shaped graph Normal Distribution
A number value or algebraic equation that is used to control the size or location of a geometric figure Numeric Constraint
A propotion between 2 set of dimensions Scale
An non-govrnment global organizations which is the development of technical standards through consensus ISO

## Psych 1010 Ch 2:Research Methods in Psychology Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A characteristic that changes between individuals, such as gender, age, intelligence, weight) Variable
A study design in which a psychologist or therapist observes one person over a long period of time Case study
An observational study in which the researcher unobtrusively observes and records behavior in the real world naturalistic
A research sample that accuratel reflects the population of people one is studying Representative
A study which does not show causation, but does measure 2 or more variables and their relationship with one another correlational
A research technique for combining all research results on one question and drawing a conclusion meta-analysis
(2 words seperated by a space)A measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables or the extent of an experimental effect effect size
In an experiment, the outcome or response to an experimental manipulation dependent variable
A variable that is manipulated by an experimenter under controlled conditions to determine whether it is caused by the predicted outcome of an experiment independent
A variable whose influence cannot be separated from the independent variable being manipulated confounding
A substance or treatment that appears identical to the actual treatment but lacks the active substance placebo
The method used to assign participants to different research conditions so that all participants have the same chance of being in any specific group random
A group of research participants who are treated exactly the same way as the experimental group, except that they do not receive the independent variable or treatment. control
A study ub which neither the participants nor the researchers administering the treatment know who has been assigned to the experimental or control group double-blind
An explanation of the purposes of the study following data collection debriefing
The score that separates the lower half of the scores from the upper half median
(2 words) A statistical measure of how much the scores in a sample vary around the mean standard deviation
The most commonly occurring score or value mode
A plotted curve that shows a normal distribution of scores Bell
A statistic that compares two means to see whether they could come from the same population t-test
The arithmetic average of a series of numbers mean

## statistics vocab Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

numbers or information describing some characteristic data
collection of data from every element of a population census
measured characteristic of a sample stastistic
data where the number of possibilities is finite discrete
characterizes data may be arranged in order ordinal
data you find and observe observational
situation occurs when effects of 2 or more variables can not be distinguished from each other confounding
groups of subjects that are similar blocks
difference between population result and true population samplingerror
sample of particular size simplerandomsample
methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, summerizing, etc. statistics
subset of a population sample
infinatley many possible values continuous
level of measurement interval
data is observed from one point of time crosssectional
experiments undergo a placebo blinding
repetition of an expiriment replication
samples are drawn from groups stratified
untreated subject believes they are under treatment placeboeffect
entire collection of elements to be studied population
measured characteristics parameter
observation using senses qualitative
characterizes data by names and labels nomial
data that can be arranged in order like a fraction ratio
data is collected from the past retrospective
subject and person giving subject treatment are under a placebo doubleblind
every (x) element is selected systematic
randomly selecting subjects in a population cluster