- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

Process of drawing conclusions about a population on the basis of measurements or observations made on a sample of units from the population. Inference

Involves ensuring the use of adequate sampling procedure, appropriate statistical tests, and reliable measurement procedures. Conclusion

Investigate the cause and effect of a relationship between two variables. Experiment

Form of math analysis that uses quantified models, representations and synapses for a given set of experimental data or real life studies. Statistics

term for any collection of "units." Parameter, Any numerical quantity that characterizes a given population or tells something about the whole population. Population

Set of data collected and the world selected from a statistical population by a defined procedure. Sample

Embodies a set of statistical assumptions concerning the generation of sample data Model

Individual pieces of factual information recorded and used for the purpose of analysis. Simulation, using artificially generated data in order to test out a hypothesis or statistical method. Data

Measure of the likelihood that an event will occur in a random experiment. Survey, Investigation about the characteristics of a given population. Probability

"average;" Add up all numbers and divide by the amount of numbers used. Mean

Data analysis framework, uses combination of effect sizes, confidence intervals, precision planning and meta-analysis to plan experiments, analyze data and interpret results. Estimate

A statistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in a survey's result Margin of error

Part of an info gathering and learning process undertaken to seek meaning from and to learn more about observed phenomena as well as to inform decisions and actions. Statistical Investigation

Numerical measurement used in statistics of a value's relationship to the mean of a group of values. Z score

Probability function that describes how the value of a variable are distributed. Normal Distribution

three-sigma rule or 68-95-99.7; states that for a normal distribution, almost all data falls within three standard deviations. Empirical Rule

collected data that can't be written as numbers Categorical Data

collected data that consists of numerical numbers that can be put in order Quantitative Data

method for graphically depicting groups of numerical data through their quartiles. Box Plot

a chart or graph that presents categorical data with rectangular bars with heights or lengths proportional to the values that they represent. Bar graph

statistical chart consisting of data points plotted on a fairly simple scale, typically using filled in circles. Dot plot

assumption about a population parameter. Hypothesis

value of something of interest you're measuring or counting during a study or experiment. Observe

quantity entering into the probability distribution of a statistic or a random variable. Parameter

way to model random events Simulation

investigation about the characteristics of a given population by means of collecting data from a sample of that population and estimating their characteristics through the systematic use of statistical methodology. Survey

measure of the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values Standard deviation

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis Data

Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities Statistics

The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn Population

Official count or survey of a population Census

A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like Sample

A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation Parameter

A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data Statistic

Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range Quantitative Data

Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data Qualitative Data

Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number Discrete

Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions Continuous

Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only. Nominal

Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Ordinal

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful Interval

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point. Ratio

Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied Observational Study

Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time Cross Sectional Study

Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome Prospective Study

Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence Retrospective Study

a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable. Confounding

The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not. Blinding

noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment. Placebo Effect

denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test. Double Blind

With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Blocks

the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. Replication

type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Systematic Sampling

One of the non-probability sampling methods Convenience Sampling

Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata Stratified Sampling

sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population Cluster Sampling

the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population Sampling Error

the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling. Nonsampling Error

a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected Random Sample

subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. Simple Random Sample

Subjects that are very carefully chosen Rigorously Controlled Design

subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection Completely Randomized Design

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses. Data

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions Statistics

The collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest Population

A subset of a population Sample

A numerical description of a population characteristic Parameter

A numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic

The branch of statistics that involves the organization, summmarization, and display of data Descriptive Statistic

Consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries Qualitative Data

Consist of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative Data

Occurs when an experiment cannot tell the difference between the effects of the different factors on a variable. Confounding Variable

A technique where the subject does not know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or a placebo Blinding

A process of randomly assigning subjects to different treatment groups. Randomization

The repetition of an experiment using a large group of subjects. Replication

A count or measure of an entire population. Census

On in which every member of he population has an equal chance of being selected. Random Sample

Depending on the focus of the study, members of the population are divided into two or more subsets Stratified Sample

Divide the population into groups and select the members in one or more groups Cluster Sample

Each member of the population is assigned a number Systematic Sample

Convenience Sample Convenience Sample

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

A number that describes some characteristic of a sample Statistic

A number that describes some characteristic of the population Parameter

The value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling SamplingVariability

Distribution of values taken by the statistics in samples of the same size from the same population SamplingDistribution

Statistic used to measure a parameter if the mean of the sample distribution is equal to the true value of the parameter UnbiasedEstimator

Gives the values of the variable for all the individuals in the population PopulationDistribution

When n is large,(n>30), the sampling distribution is approx. Normal CentralLimitTheorem

Number of subjects being recorded in one session, represented by “n” SampleSize

Parameter that describes a percentage value associated with a population PopulationProportion

Used to describe shape for sample proportions, both np> or =10 and n(1-p)> or =10 LargeCounts

The mean of the distribution, Mp for Sample Proportions and M for Sample Means Center

Quantitative Data represented by “M”. The average of everyone MeanofPopulation

Quantitative Data represented by the symbol “x bar”. The average of the data collected SampleMean

Categorical Data represented by “p hat”, describes a percentage value associated with a sample StatisticProportion

The center of a sampling distribution is not equal to the true value of the parameter BiasEstimator

Used to determine spread for both Sample Proportions and Sample Means. Also uses Stnd. Dev. TenPercentCondition

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

the entire set of items from which data can be selected Population

divide an ordered data set into 4 equal parts Quartiles

a numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic

information about a product or process, usually in numerical order Data

score that occurs most often Mode

middle score when listed in numerical order Median

average Mean

a subset, or portion, of the population. Sample

the square root of variance Standard Deviation

a census occurs when everyone in the population is contacted Census

a mistake causing results that are not representative of the population Bias

have a finite number of distinct values or counts DiscreteRandom

consists of attributes, labels, or non-numerical entries Qualitative Data

consist of numerical measurements or count Quantitative Data

the difference between the greatest data element and the least data element Range

data that are far away from most of the data points Outliers

the fact that the value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling Sampling Variability

a symmetric distribution can be divided at the center so that each half is a mirror image of the other Symmetry

he average of the squares of the deviations of the observations from their mean Variance

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses data

the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data Descriptive statistics

Data can be ordered, and meaningful differences between entries can be calculated Interval

consists of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative data

a subset, or part, of a populatin sample

a numerical description of a population characteristic parameter

Data are qualitative only - categorized by using names, labels, or qualities nominal

the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population Inferential statistics

determines which statistical calculations are meaningful level of measurement

consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries qualitative data

a numerical description of a sample characteristic statistic

the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest population

the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions statistics

data that are qualitative or quantitative - can be arranged in order, or ranked, but differences between data entries are not meaningful ordinal

Data can be set up so that one data entry can be meaningfully expressed as a multiplier of another ratio

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

A ______ is a numerical facsimile or representation of a real-world phenomenon. simulation

_____ are measurements or observations from which the entire population are used. census

A _____ is a group of individuals sharing some common features the might affect the treatment. Block

A ____ is a list of individuals from which a sample is actually selected. Sampling Frame

A ____ is the result of poor sample design, sloppy data collection, faulty measuring instruments, bias in questionaries and so on. Non sampling Error

____ results from omitting population members from the sample frame. Over coverage

In _____, are only from some of the individuals of interest. sample data

A ____ is a numerical measure that describes an aspect of the population. parameter

____ sampling uses a variety of smapling methods to create successively smaller groups at each stage. multistage clustering

Population divided into subgroups. Stratified

A measurement or observation from which only a part of the population is used. sample

- Type
- Word Search

Stratified Sample

Random Sample

Cluster Sample

Inferential Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Qualitative Data

Quantitative Data

Ordinal Level

Interval Level

Nominal Level

Ratio Level

Confounding Variable

Blinding

Randomization

Replication

Parameter

Sample

Statistics

Data

Population

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

numbers or information describing some characteristic data

collection of data from every element of a population census

measured characteristic of a sample stastistic

data where the number of possibilities is finite discrete

characterizes data may be arranged in order ordinal

data you find and observe observational

situation occurs when effects of 2 or more variables can not be distinguished from each other confounding

groups of subjects that are similar blocks

data is readily available convience

difference between population result and true population samplingerror

sample of particular size simplerandomsample

methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, summerizing, etc. statistics

subset of a population sample

observations made by counting quantitative

infinatley many possible values continuous

level of measurement interval

data is observed from one point of time crosssectional

experiments undergo a placebo blinding

repetition of an expiriment replication

samples are drawn from groups stratified

untreated subject believes they are under treatment placeboeffect

entire collection of elements to be studied population

measured characteristics parameter

observation using senses qualitative

characterizes data by names and labels nomial

data that can be arranged in order like a fraction ratio

data is collected from the past retrospective

subject and person giving subject treatment are under a placebo doubleblind

every (x) element is selected systematic

randomly selecting subjects in a population cluster

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

Section of a research paper that discusses the literature used and is organized through themes Literature Review

Section of a research paper that introduces the topic and tells of its importance introduction

Type of sampling sometimes known as grab, accidental, or opportunity sampling Convenience

Sampling used for hard-to-reach populations snowball

A condition to causality where the IV comes before DV Time Order

Results when a scale produces consistent results Reliability

Part of the methods sections that explains how to go about collecting data Procedure

Also known as a questionnaire Survey

Data that is open ended, in-depth, and insight-oriented Qualitative

This has to be present in an experiement Intervention

Level of measurement where distance has no meaning Interval

Type of survey involving closed ended questions with forced choices Structured

Observation where researchers remains apart from the observed Pure

People tend to change behavior when they know they are being observed Reactivity

Data that is consistent and standardized and uses large samples in its research Quantitative

Type of criterion validity that has the ability to predict future events Predictive

Only chance determines which elements will make it into the sampe Random

- Type
- Word Search

cumulative frequency

event

expected value

frequency histogram

frequency polygon

interquartile range

median

midpoint

mode

outlier

parameter

qualitative data

quantitative data

random variable

range

sample

sample space

statistic

statistics

weighted mean