# Statistics and Probability Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Process of drawing conclusions about a population on the basis of measurements or observations made on a sample of units from the population. Inference
Involves ensuring the use of adequate sampling procedure, appropriate statistical tests, and reliable measurement procedures. Conclusion
Investigate the cause and effect of a relationship between two variables. Experiment
Form of math analysis that uses quantified models, representations and synapses for a given set of experimental data or real life studies. Statistics
term for any collection of "units." Parameter, Any numerical quantity that characterizes a given population or tells something about the whole population. Population
Set of data collected and the world selected from a statistical population by a defined procedure. Sample
Embodies a set of statistical assumptions concerning the generation of sample data Model
Individual pieces of factual information recorded and used for the purpose of analysis. Simulation, using artificially generated data in order to test out a hypothesis or statistical method. Data
Measure of the likelihood that an event will occur in a random experiment. Survey, Investigation about the characteristics of a given population. Probability
"average;" Add up all numbers and divide by the amount of numbers used. Mean
Data analysis framework, uses combination of effect sizes, confidence intervals, precision planning and meta-analysis to plan experiments, analyze data and interpret results. Estimate
A statistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in a survey's result Margin of error
Part of an info gathering and learning process undertaken to seek meaning from and to learn more about observed phenomena as well as to inform decisions and actions. Statistical Investigation
Numerical measurement used in statistics of a value's relationship to the mean of a group of values. Z score
Probability function that describes how the value of a variable are distributed. Normal Distribution
three-sigma rule or 68-95-99.7; states that for a normal distribution, almost all data falls within three standard deviations. Empirical Rule
collected data that can't be written as numbers Categorical Data
collected data that consists of numerical numbers that can be put in order Quantitative Data
method for graphically depicting groups of numerical data through their quartiles. Box Plot
a chart or graph that presents categorical data with rectangular bars with heights or lengths proportional to the values that they represent. Bar graph
statistical chart consisting of data points plotted on a fairly simple scale, typically using filled in circles. Dot plot
assumption about a population parameter. Hypothesis
value of something of interest you're measuring or counting during a study or experiment. Observe
quantity entering into the probability distribution of a statistic or a random variable. Parameter
way to model random events Simulation
investigation about the characteristics of a given population by means of collecting data from a sample of that population and estimating their characteristics through the systematic use of statistical methodology. Survey
measure of the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values Standard deviation

## Statistics Vocabulary Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis Data
Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities Statistics
The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn Population
Official count or survey of a population Census
A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like Sample
A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation Parameter
A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data Statistic
Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range Quantitative Data
Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data Qualitative Data
Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number Discrete
Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions Continuous
Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only. Nominal
Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Ordinal
Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful Interval
Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point. Ratio
Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied Observational Study
Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time Cross Sectional Study
Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome Prospective Study
Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence Retrospective Study
a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable. Confounding
The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not. Blinding
noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment. Placebo Effect
denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test. Double Blind
With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Blocks
the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. Replication
type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Systematic Sampling
One of the non-probability sampling methods Convenience Sampling
Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata Stratified Sampling
sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population Cluster Sampling
the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population Sampling Error
the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling. Nonsampling Error
a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected Random Sample
subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. Simple Random Sample
Subjects that are very carefully chosen Rigorously Controlled Design
subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection Completely Randomized Design

## Chapter 1: Statistics Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses. Data
The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions Statistics
The collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest Population
A subset of a population Sample
A numerical description of a population characteristic Parameter
A numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic
The branch of statistics that involves the organization, summmarization, and display of data Descriptive Statistic
Consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries Qualitative Data
Consist of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative Data
Occurs when an experiment cannot tell the difference between the effects of the different factors on a variable. Confounding Variable
A technique where the subject does not know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or a placebo Blinding
A process of randomly assigning subjects to different treatment groups. Randomization
The repetition of an experiment using a large group of subjects. Replication
A count or measure of an entire population. Census
On in which every member of he population has an equal chance of being selected. Random Sample
Depending on the focus of the study, members of the population are divided into two or more subsets Stratified Sample
Divide the population into groups and select the members in one or more groups Cluster Sample
Each member of the population is assigned a number Systematic Sample
Convenience Sample Convenience Sample

## AP Stats Chapter 7 Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A number that describes some characteristic of a sample Statistic
A number that describes some characteristic of the population Parameter
The value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling SamplingVariability
Distribution of values taken by the statistics in samples of the same size from the same population SamplingDistribution
Statistic used to measure a parameter if the mean of the sample distribution is equal to the true value of the parameter UnbiasedEstimator
Gives the values of the variable for all the individuals in the population PopulationDistribution
When n is large,(n>30), the sampling distribution is approx. Normal CentralLimitTheorem
Number of subjects being recorded in one session, represented by “n” SampleSize
Parameter that describes a percentage value associated with a population PopulationProportion
Used to describe shape for sample proportions, both np> or =10 and n(1-p)> or =10 LargeCounts
The mean of the distribution, Mp for Sample Proportions and M for Sample Means Center
Quantitative Data represented by “M”. The average of everyone MeanofPopulation
Quantitative Data represented by the symbol “x bar”. The average of the data collected SampleMean
Categorical Data represented by “p hat”, describes a percentage value associated with a sample StatisticProportion
The center of a sampling distribution is not equal to the true value of the parameter BiasEstimator
Used to determine spread for both Sample Proportions and Sample Means. Also uses Stnd. Dev. TenPercentCondition

## Unit 7 Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

the entire set of items from which data can be selected Population
divide an ordered data set into 4 equal parts Quartiles
a numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic
information about a product or process, usually in numerical order Data
score that occurs most often Mode
middle score when listed in numerical order Median
average Mean
a subset, or portion, of the population. Sample
the square root of variance Standard Deviation
a census occurs when everyone in the population is contacted Census
a mistake causing results that are not representative of the population Bias
have a finite number of distinct values or counts DiscreteRandom
consists of attributes, labels, or non-numerical entries Qualitative Data
consist of numerical measurements or count Quantitative Data
the difference between the greatest data element and the least data element Range
data that are far away from most of the data points Outliers
the fact that the value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling Sampling Variability
a symmetric distribution can be divided at the center so that each half is a mirror image of the other Symmetry
he average of the squares of the deviations of the observations from their mean Variance

## Elementary Statistics Chapter 1.1 and 1.2 Vocabulary Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses data
the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data Descriptive statistics
Data can be ordered, and meaningful differences between entries can be calculated Interval
consists of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative data
a subset, or part, of a populatin sample
a numerical description of a population characteristic parameter
Data are qualitative only - categorized by using names, labels, or qualities nominal
the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population Inferential statistics
determines which statistical calculations are meaningful level of measurement
consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries qualitative data
a numerical description of a sample characteristic statistic
the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest population
the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions statistics
data that are qualitative or quantitative - can be arranged in order, or ranked, but differences between data entries are not meaningful ordinal
Data can be set up so that one data entry can be meaningfully expressed as a multiplier of another ratio

## Statistics Chapter 1 Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A ______ is a numerical facsimile or representation of a real-world phenomenon. simulation
_____ are measurements or observations from which the entire population are used. census
A _____ is a group of individuals sharing some common features the might affect the treatment. Block
A ____ is a list of individuals from which a sample is actually selected. Sampling Frame
A ____ is the result of poor sample design, sloppy data collection, faulty measuring instruments, bias in questionaries and so on. Non sampling Error
____ results from omitting population members from the sample frame. Over coverage
In _____, are only from some of the individuals of interest. sample data
A ____ is a numerical measure that describes an aspect of the population. parameter
____ sampling uses a variety of smapling methods to create successively smaller groups at each stage. multistage clustering
Population divided into subgroups. Stratified
A measurement or observation from which only a part of the population is used. sample

## Probability and Statistics Word Search

Type
Word Search
Description

Stratified Sample
Random Sample
Cluster Sample
Inferential Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
Qualitative Data
Quantitative Data
Ordinal Level
Interval Level
Nominal Level
Ratio Level
Confounding Variable
Blinding
Randomization
Replication
Parameter
Sample
Statistics
Data
Population

## statistics vocab Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

numbers or information describing some characteristic data
collection of data from every element of a population census
measured characteristic of a sample stastistic
data where the number of possibilities is finite discrete
characterizes data may be arranged in order ordinal
data you find and observe observational
situation occurs when effects of 2 or more variables can not be distinguished from each other confounding
groups of subjects that are similar blocks
data is readily available convience
difference between population result and true population samplingerror
sample of particular size simplerandomsample
methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, summerizing, etc. statistics
subset of a population sample
observations made by counting quantitative
infinatley many possible values continuous
level of measurement interval
data is observed from one point of time crosssectional
experiments undergo a placebo blinding
repetition of an expiriment replication
samples are drawn from groups stratified
untreated subject believes they are under treatment placeboeffect
entire collection of elements to be studied population
measured characteristics parameter
observation using senses qualitative
characterizes data by names and labels nomial
data that can be arranged in order like a fraction ratio
data is collected from the past retrospective
subject and person giving subject treatment are under a placebo doubleblind
every (x) element is selected systematic
randomly selecting subjects in a population cluster

## Research Methods Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Section of a research paper that discusses the literature used and is organized through themes Literature Review
Section of a research paper that introduces the topic and tells of its importance introduction
Type of sampling sometimes known as grab, accidental, or opportunity sampling Convenience
Sampling used for hard-to-reach populations snowball
A condition to causality where the IV comes before DV Time Order
Results when a scale produces consistent results Reliability
Part of the methods sections that explains how to go about collecting data Procedure
Also known as a questionnaire Survey
Data that is open ended, in-depth, and insight-oriented Qualitative
This has to be present in an experiement Intervention
Level of measurement where distance has no meaning Interval
Type of survey involving closed ended questions with forced choices Structured
Observation where researchers remains apart from the observed Pure
People tend to change behavior when they know they are being observed Reactivity
Data that is consistent and standardized and uses large samples in its research Quantitative
Type of criterion validity that has the ability to predict future events Predictive
Only chance determines which elements will make it into the sampe Random

## Statistics Words Word Search

Type
Word Search
Description

cumulative frequency
event
expected value
frequency histogram
frequency polygon
interquartile range
median
midpoint
mode
outlier
parameter
qualitative data
quantitative data
random variable
range
sample
sample space
statistic
statistics
weighted mean