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Objects described by a set of data Individuals

An attribute that describes a person, place, or thing Variable

A variable that can take a variety of values Categorical Variable

The middle point of a data set Median

The average Mean

A measure of variability based on dividing a data set into quartiles IQR

A variable whose effect on the response variable cannot be untangled from the effects of the treatment Confounding

A neutral treatment that has no "real" effect on the dependent variable Placebo

Maximum expected difference between the true population parameter and a sample estimate of that parameter Margin of Error

The difference between two groups is judged to be significant when p = 0.05 or less. Statistical Significance

Where study participants are randomly assigned to a study group Random Assignment

A study in which the researcher simply observes the participants with no interference Observational

A controlled study in which the researcher attempts to understand cause and effect relationships Experiment

A question that can be answered by collecting data and where there will be variability in the data Statistical Question

Estimate values that go beyond a set of given data or observations Extrapolations

How much an estimate varies between samples Sampling Variability

A measure of the amount of variation of a set of values. Standard Deviation

People have the option to not participate in the survey or experiment

This sample is taken from a group of people easy to contact or to reach Convenience sample

occurs when some members of the population are inadequately represented in the sample Undercoverage

A sample made up of volunteers Voluntary response sample

each member is given an equal probability of being chosen Random Sample

The rate of change in y as x changes Slope

When x=0 Y-Intercept

A statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two or more variables fluctuate together Correlation

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Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis Data

Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities Statistics

The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn Population

Official count or survey of a population Census

A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like Sample

A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation Parameter

A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data Statistic

Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range Quantitative Data

Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data Qualitative Data

Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number Discrete

Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions Continuous

Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only. Nominal

Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Ordinal

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful Interval

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point. Ratio

Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied Observational Study

Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time Cross Sectional Study

Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome Prospective Study

Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence Retrospective Study

a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable. Confounding

The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not. Blinding

noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment. Placebo Effect

denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test. Double Blind

With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Blocks

the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. Replication

type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Systematic Sampling

One of the non-probability sampling methods Convenience Sampling

Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata Stratified Sampling

sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population Cluster Sampling

the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population Sampling Error

the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling. Nonsampling Error

a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected Random Sample

subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. Simple Random Sample

Subjects that are very carefully chosen Rigorously Controlled Design

subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection Completely Randomized Design

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Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses. Data

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions Statistics

The collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest Population

A subset of a population Sample

A numerical description of a population characteristic Parameter

A numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic

The branch of statistics that involves the organization, summmarization, and display of data Descriptive Statistic

Consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries Qualitative Data

Consist of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative Data

Occurs when an experiment cannot tell the difference between the effects of the different factors on a variable. Confounding Variable

A technique where the subject does not know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or a placebo Blinding

A process of randomly assigning subjects to different treatment groups. Randomization

The repetition of an experiment using a large group of subjects. Replication

A count or measure of an entire population. Census

On in which every member of he population has an equal chance of being selected. Random Sample

Depending on the focus of the study, members of the population are divided into two or more subsets Stratified Sample

Divide the population into groups and select the members in one or more groups Cluster Sample

Each member of the population is assigned a number Systematic Sample

Convenience Sample Convenience Sample

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A characteristic that changes between individuals, such as gender, age, intelligence, weight) Variable

A study design in which a psychologist or therapist observes one person over a long period of time Case study

An observational study in which the researcher unobtrusively observes and records behavior in the real world naturalistic

A research sample that accuratel reflects the population of people one is studying Representative

A study which does not show causation, but does measure 2 or more variables and their relationship with one another correlational

A research technique for combining all research results on one question and drawing a conclusion meta-analysis

(2 words seperated by a space)A measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables or the extent of an experimental effect effect size

In an experiment, the outcome or response to an experimental manipulation dependent variable

A variable that is manipulated by an experimenter under controlled conditions to determine whether it is caused by the predicted outcome of an experiment independent

A variable whose influence cannot be separated from the independent variable being manipulated confounding

A substance or treatment that appears identical to the actual treatment but lacks the active substance placebo

The method used to assign participants to different research conditions so that all participants have the same chance of being in any specific group random

A group of research participants who are treated exactly the same way as the experimental group, except that they do not receive the independent variable or treatment. control

A study ub which neither the participants nor the researchers administering the treatment know who has been assigned to the experimental or control group double-blind

An explanation of the purposes of the study following data collection debriefing

The score that separates the lower half of the scores from the upper half median

(2 words) A statistical measure of how much the scores in a sample vary around the mean standard deviation

The most commonly occurring score or value mode

A plotted curve that shows a normal distribution of scores Bell

A statistic that compares two means to see whether they could come from the same population t-test

The arithmetic average of a series of numbers mean

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numbers or information describing some characteristic data

collection of data from every element of a population census

measured characteristic of a sample stastistic

data where the number of possibilities is finite discrete

characterizes data may be arranged in order ordinal

data you find and observe observational

situation occurs when effects of 2 or more variables can not be distinguished from each other confounding

groups of subjects that are similar blocks

data is readily available convience

difference between population result and true population samplingerror

sample of particular size simplerandomsample

methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, summerizing, etc. statistics

subset of a population sample

observations made by counting quantitative

infinatley many possible values continuous

level of measurement interval

data is observed from one point of time crosssectional

experiments undergo a placebo blinding

repetition of an expiriment replication

samples are drawn from groups stratified

untreated subject believes they are under treatment placeboeffect

entire collection of elements to be studied population

measured characteristics parameter

observation using senses qualitative

characterizes data by names and labels nomial

data that can be arranged in order like a fraction ratio

data is collected from the past retrospective

subject and person giving subject treatment are under a placebo doubleblind

every (x) element is selected systematic

randomly selecting subjects in a population cluster

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cumulative frequency

event

expected value

frequency histogram

frequency polygon

interquartile range

median

midpoint

mode

outlier

parameter

qualitative data

quantitative data

random variable

range

sample

sample space

statistic

statistics

weighted mean

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the value that lies in the middle of the data when arranged in ascending order median

the most frequent observation of the variable that occurs in the data set mode

the science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing information to draw conclusions or answer questions statistics

a person or object that is a member of the population being studied individual

a subset of the population that is being studied sample

a numerical summary of a population parameter

occurs when the effects of two or more explanatory variables are not separated confounding

a graph constructed by drawing rectangles for each class of data histogram

the degree to which the data are spread out dispersion

: the difference between the largest and the smallest data value range

the square of the standard deviation variance

the distance that a data value is from the mean in terms of the number of standard deviations zscore

a statement regarding a characteristic of one or more populations hypothesis

each repetition of an experiment trial

serve as cutoff points for determining outliers fences

a number computed by adding all the values of the variable in the data set and dividing by the number of observations mean

: the characteristics of the individuals within the populations variables

The list of observed values for a variable data

a type of diagram that lists the equally likely outcomes of an experiment using branches tree

a type of diagram that represents events as circles enclosed in a rectangle venn

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A prediction drawn from a theory hypothesis

When an investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response. structured observations

When a observer records all instances of a particular behavior during a specified time period. event sampling

The effects of the observer on the behavior studied. observer influence

When observers are aware of the purposes of a study, they may see and record what they expect to see rather than what participants actually do. observer bias

Measures the relationship between nervous system processes and behavior neurobiological methods

Brings together a wide range of information on one child, including interviews, observations, test scores, and sometimes neurobiological measures. case study

A descriptive, qualitative technique directed at understanding a culture or a distinct social group through participant observation ethnography

researchers gather information on individuals, generally in natu- ral life circumstances, and make no effort to alter their experiences. Then they look at relationships between participantsâ€™ characteristics and their behavior or development. correlational design

Type of research that permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to two or more treat- ment conditions. experimental design

Type of variable that the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable. independent

The type of variable that the one the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent variable. dependent

When participants are studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as they get older. longitudinal design

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In science, (blank) can also involve the recording of data via the use of instruments Observation

An (blank) is a logical interpretation based on what scientists observe. Inference

consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses. Scientific Method

variables that the experimenter changes independent variable

variable being tested in a scientific experiment Dependent Variable

is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable. control

an idea or explanation that you then test through study and experimentation. hypothesis

final process of the basic scientific method Conclusion

"a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses." analysis

which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis. Evidence

researcher subjectively gathers information that focuses more on the differences in quality than the differences in quantity, qualitative

of, relating to, or expressible in terms of quantity Quantitative

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Group of people with certain specific characteristics Population

A group of people who represent a larger population Sample

A sample that accurately reflects the characteristics Representative sample

A written set of questions to be answered by a research participant Questionnaire

A survey method in which a trained researcher ask questions and record the answers Interview

Research method in which people respond to questions Survey

Facts or statistics Data

Questions a person must answer by choosing from a limited, set of responses Closed ended questions

Questions a person is to answer in his or her own words Open ended questions

Intensive study of a single group Case study

Research that takes place in a natural setting Field research

Using precollected information for data collection and research purposes Secondary analysis

The belief that events occur in predictable ways Causation

A characteristic that is subject to change Variable

A characteristic that can be measured numerically Quantitative variable

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It can be assumed that it is present, but it cannot be seen or measured directly. construct

An educated guess. hypothesis

In order for a study to be conformed, it must be _______________. replicated

Gathering information by asking people a series of questions. survey

________________________ is the whole group you want to study or describe. target population

When researchers conduct any type of study, they must consider what group or groups of people they wish to examine and how respondents will be selected. sample

Individuals are selected by chance from the target population. random sample

In a ___________ ___________, subgroups in the population are represented proportionally. stratified sample

______________or predisposition to a certain point of view. bias

A ______________ ______ often have different outlook from people who do not volunteer for research studies. volunteer bias

An in-depth investigation of an individual or a small group. case study

Researchers select a group of participants then observe those participants over a long period of time. longitudinal method

In the _____________ _____________ _________, instead of following a set of individuals over a number of years, they select a sample that includes people of different ages. cross section method

____________ observation is when researchers observes individuals interacting with other individuals of the same age. naturalistic

____________ observation is any place that provides the opportunity for observation or experimentation. laboratory

The measure of how closely one thing is related to the other. correlation