- Type
- Word Scramble

target population

purposive

multistage

quota

convenience

cluster

systematic

stratified

simple random

nonprobability

sampling frame

element

probability

population

sampling

- Type
- Word Search

Stratified Sample

Random Sample

Cluster Sample

Inferential Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Qualitative Data

Quantitative Data

Ordinal Level

Interval Level

Nominal Level

Ratio Level

Confounding Variable

Blinding

Randomization

Replication

Parameter

Sample

Statistics

Data

Population

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

Some from all Stratified

Numbers and things that go into a category Categorical

All form some Cluster

A survey using a system Systematic

Smaller group from the survey Sample

All the data that you can see Descriptive

The people that were missed by your means of survey Undercoverage

The worst kind of survey Convenience

A study using the sample Surveys

The entire group Population

Simple Random Survey SRS

Can do meaningful math Quantitative

Assume, deduce, decide Inferential

A study using the entire population Census

Favritism Bias

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis Data

Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities Statistics

The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn Population

Official count or survey of a population Census

A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like Sample

A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation Parameter

A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data Statistic

Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range Quantitative Data

Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data Qualitative Data

Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number Discrete

Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions Continuous

Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only. Nominal

Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Ordinal

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful Interval

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point. Ratio

Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied Observational Study

Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time Cross Sectional Study

Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome Prospective Study

Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence Retrospective Study

a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable. Confounding

The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not. Blinding

noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment. Placebo Effect

denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test. Double Blind

With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Blocks

the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. Replication

type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Systematic Sampling

One of the non-probability sampling methods Convenience Sampling

Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata Stratified Sampling

sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population Cluster Sampling

the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population Sampling Error

the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling. Nonsampling Error

a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected Random Sample

subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. Simple Random Sample

Subjects that are very carefully chosen Rigorously Controlled Design

subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection Completely Randomized Design

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses. Data

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions Statistics

The collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest Population

A subset of a population Sample

A numerical description of a population characteristic Parameter

A numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic

The branch of statistics that involves the organization, summmarization, and display of data Descriptive Statistic

Consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries Qualitative Data

Consist of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative Data

Occurs when an experiment cannot tell the difference between the effects of the different factors on a variable. Confounding Variable

A technique where the subject does not know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or a placebo Blinding

A process of randomly assigning subjects to different treatment groups. Randomization

The repetition of an experiment using a large group of subjects. Replication

A count or measure of an entire population. Census

On in which every member of he population has an equal chance of being selected. Random Sample

Depending on the focus of the study, members of the population are divided into two or more subsets Stratified Sample

Divide the population into groups and select the members in one or more groups Cluster Sample

Each member of the population is assigned a number Systematic Sample

Convenience Sample Convenience Sample

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

A ______ is a numerical facsimile or representation of a real-world phenomenon. simulation

_____ are measurements or observations from which the entire population are used. census

A _____ is a group of individuals sharing some common features the might affect the treatment. Block

A ____ is a list of individuals from which a sample is actually selected. Sampling Frame

A ____ is the result of poor sample design, sloppy data collection, faulty measuring instruments, bias in questionaries and so on. Non sampling Error

____ results from omitting population members from the sample frame. Over coverage

In _____, are only from some of the individuals of interest. sample data

A ____ is a numerical measure that describes an aspect of the population. parameter

____ sampling uses a variety of smapling methods to create successively smaller groups at each stage. multistage clustering

Population divided into subgroups. Stratified

A measurement or observation from which only a part of the population is used. sample

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

researchers have no influence observational

researchers deliberately impose a treatment experimental

an explanatory variable in an experiment factor

a specific experimental condition that is imposed on the subjects treatment

a group of units that are similar in some way that may affect their response block

always as two treatments, two ways to design matched pairs

entire group of interest population

a subset of the population that we measure sample

biased and are not representative of any larger group voluntary response

population is divided by a similar characteristic stratified

all samples are equally likely to be chosen simple random sample

every kth individual in the population is selected systematic

population is divided into groups (think apartment complex) cluster

list of population members from which we chose our sample sampling frame

certain members, who may have a different opinion of a population are not included undercoverage

bias occuring from the way samples are selected sampling bias

when a large portion of the sample either cannot be contacted or choose not to respond non-response bias

when people lie when giving answers on a survey response bias

questions are worded in a way to get them to give you the answers you want deliberate bias

occurs when questions are not clear or could easily be misinterpretted unintentional bias

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

numbers or information describing some characteristic data

collection of data from every element of a population census

measured characteristic of a sample stastistic

data where the number of possibilities is finite discrete

characterizes data may be arranged in order ordinal

data you find and observe observational

situation occurs when effects of 2 or more variables can not be distinguished from each other confounding

groups of subjects that are similar blocks

data is readily available convience

difference between population result and true population samplingerror

sample of particular size simplerandomsample

methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, summerizing, etc. statistics

subset of a population sample

observations made by counting quantitative

infinatley many possible values continuous

level of measurement interval

data is observed from one point of time crosssectional

experiments undergo a placebo blinding

repetition of an expiriment replication

samples are drawn from groups stratified

untreated subject believes they are under treatment placeboeffect

entire collection of elements to be studied population

measured characteristics parameter

observation using senses qualitative

characterizes data by names and labels nomial

data that can be arranged in order like a fraction ratio

data is collected from the past retrospective

subject and person giving subject treatment are under a placebo doubleblind

every (x) element is selected systematic

randomly selecting subjects in a population cluster

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

Choosing one section of a target population to participate in an experiment Cluster

Choosing one section of a target population to participate in the experiment. Cluster

This technique could be criticized for being too selective but is often the most effective (especially in qualitative research). Purposive

Only choosing one section of the targeted population to participate in the experiment Purposive

Every member of targeted population has the same chance of being able to participate. Random

Example is: using a random number or flipping a coin Random

People are invited to participate in experiment because they can be contacted easily Opportunity

Using easy subjects as participants (ex. psychology students) Opportunity

The targeted population can be categorized Stratified

Equal amount from each category for target population ( 10 junior girls and 10 junior guys) Stratified

Participant invites other people they know to join the experiment Snowball

gives the researchers a large population to study, though it can be easily viewed as biased Snowball

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

a ______ random sample consists of separate simple random samples drawn from groups of similar individuals. stratified

A "fake" treatment that is sometimes used in experiments placebo

I want to test if a sugar substitute in coffee is liked by people. Some people are given the sugar substitute and some are given sugar. The group that gets the sugar is called the _______ group. Control

The process of drawing a conclusion about the population based on a sample Inference

this type of study can not be used to establish a cause-effect relationship observational

the practice of using enough subjects in an experiment to reduce chance variation replication

a study that systematically favors certain outcomes shows this bias

this occurs when some groups in the population are left out of the process when choosing the sample undercoverage

when treatment is imposed in order to observe a response experiment

the entire group of individuals about which we want information population

groups of similar individuals in a population strata

this occurs when an individual chosen for the sample cannot be contacted or refuses to participate nonresponse

an observed effect that is too large to have occurred by chance alone significant

a sample in which we choose individuals who are easiest to reach convenience

a _______ response sample consists of people who choose themselves by responding to a general appeal voluntary

neither the subjects nor those measuring the response know which treatment the subject received (two words) double blind

when units are humans, the are called subjects

the name of all employees are placed in a hat and 15 names are drawn for a prize. What type of sample is this? simple random sample

students are given a pre-test on the Civil War. I then give them a chapter to read on the subject, then give a post-test. The chapter they read is called the ______. treatment

There are 20 socks in a drawer, i randomly remove 4 socks to see if I get at least one matching pair. The four socks are called a _______. sample

- Type
- Crossword Puzzle

The study of how to collect, organize, analyze, and interpret data Statistics

The people or objects included in the study Individuals

A characteristic of the individual to be measured or observed Variable

The mean of the population Parameter

Mean of a sample Statistic

A numarical facsimile or representation of a real-world phenomenon Simulation

Divid entire population into subgroups called strata Stratified sampling

Number all members of population sequentially. Systematic Sampling

Results from omitting population members from the sample frame Undercoverage

A list of individuals from which a sample is actually selected Sampling Frame

Measurement or observation from entire population Census

Measurement or observation from part of the population sample

Divid the entire population into pre-existing segments or clusters Cluster sampling

Create a sample by using data from population members that are readily avalible Convenience sample

Use a variety of sampling methods to create successively smaller groups at each stage Multistage sampling