obligation imposed on government to take positive action to protect citizens from any illegal action of government agencies and of other private citizens.
the use of any unreasonable and unjust criterion of exclusion.
one of three Civil War amendments; it abolished slavery.
Clause guaranteeing "equal protection of the laws" in provision of the 14th amendment
Eqal protection clause
one of three Civil War amendments; it guaranteed equal protection and due process.
one of three Civil War amendments; it guaranteed voting rights for African American men.
laws enacted by southern states following Reconstruction that discriminated against African Americans.
Jim crow Laws
doctrine that public accommodations could be segregated by race but still be considered equal.
separate but equal rule
a test used by the Supreme Court in racial discrimination cases and other cases involving civil liberties and civil rights that places the burden of proof on the government rather than on the challengers to show that the law in question is constitutional.
literally, "by law"; refers to legally enforced practices, such as school segregation in the South before the 1960s.
Means "By Fact"
the apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group or political party.
a practice in which banks refuse to make loans to people living in certain geographic locations.
a test used by the Supreme Court in gender discrimination cases that places the burden of proof partially on the government and partially on the challengers to show that the law in question is unconstitutional.
government policies or programs that seek to redress past injustices against specified groups by making special efforts to provide members of those groups with access to educational and employment opportunities.
institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled.
conflict over the leadership, structure, and policies of governments.
the ability to influence government and politics.
informed and active membership in a political community.
a form of government in which a single individual—a king, queen, or dictator—rules.
a form of government in which a small group—landowners, military officers, or wealthy merchants—controls most of the governing decisions.
a system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through the election of key public officials.
influence over a government's leadership, organization, or policies.
the theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government; the outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation.