an approach that separates itself from direct lobbying through the act of asking the general public to contact legislators and government officials concerning the issue at hand, as opposed to conveying the message to the legislators directly.
grassroots lobbying
Congress- A group of members of congress sharing some interest or charasticics. State- A system for selecting conventional delegates used in about a dozen mostly rural states in which voters must show up at a set time and attend an open meeting to express their presidential preference.
Government controlled directly by citizens. Procedures in some states such as the initiative, the referendum, and the recall give voters a direct impact on policymaking and the political process by means of the voting booth and can therefore be considered forms of direct democracy.
direct democracy
Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services.
block grants
an unintentional failure to notice or do something
is a trend or process whereby a large portion of the electorate abandons its previous partisan affiliation, without developing a new one to replace it. It is contrasted with realignment.
Use of the federal budget- taxes, spending, and borrowing- to influence the economy; along with monetary policy, a main tool by which the government can attempt to steer the economy. It is almost entirely determined by Congress and the president.
fiscal policy
a regular election of candidates for office, as opposed to a primary election
general election
a type of primary election used to choose candidates who will run in the general election. In a closed primary, only voters registered for the party which is holding the primary may vote.
closed primary
Ends a filibuster in the Senate
motion for cloture
a political committee that can solicit and spend unlimited sums of money
super pac
A way of organizing a nation so that 2 or more levels of Government have formal authority over the same land and people. It’s a system of shared power between units of government.
The process where individuals in a society acquire political attitudes, views, and knowledge based on inputs from family, schools the media and others.
political socialization
those specifically named in the Constitution. They are sometimes called delegated powers or enumerated powers.
expressed powers
occurs whenever one Congress meets after its successor is elected, but before the successor's term begins.
lame duck period
general elections in the United States that are held two years after the quadrennial (four-year) elections for the President of the United States
midterm election
the privilege of sending mail without payment of postage.
franking privilege
A communication by someone other than a citizen acting on her/his own behalf directed to a governmental decision maker with the hope to influencing her/his decision.
an individual's stance on a given issue, policy, or person is more likely to be strictly defined by their identification with a particular political party
party polarization
Legal briefs submitted by a “friend of the court” for the purpose of influencing a court’s decision by raising additional points of view and presenting information not contained in the briefs of the formal parties.
amicus curiae
A judicial philosophy in which judges play minimal policymaking roles, leaving that duty strictly to the legislatures.
judicial activism
political journalism of elections that resembles coverage of horse races because of the focus on polling data, public perception instead of candidate policy, and almost exclusive reporting on candidate differences rather than similarities.
horse race journalism
: Activities of members of Congress that help constituents as individuals, particularly by cutting through bureaucratic red tape to get people what they think they have a right to her.
A mutually dependant and advantageous relationship between interest groups interesting in a particular policy, government agencies that administer that policy, and the congressional committees and subcommittees that handle it.
issue network
a team of men and women seeking to gain office in an election
political party
practice that attempts to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries to create partisan
the staff that work within the white house
white house staff
a strategy unique to the Senate whereby opponents of a piece of legislation use their right to unlimited debate to prevent the Senate from ever voting on a bill
regulations originating with the executive branch, method that presidents can use to control the bureaucracy
executive orders
an electoral “earthquake” where new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and the majority party is often displaced by the minority party, critical election periods are sometimes marked by national crisis and may require more than one election to bring about a new party era
critical election
federal projects, grants, and contracts available to state and local governments, businesses, colleges, and other institutions in a congressional district
pork barrel spending
policies for which congress has obligated itself to pay X level of benefits to Y number of recipients
the practice of exchanging favors, especially in politics by reciprocal voting for each other's proposed legislation.
Government manipulation of the supply of money in private hands
monetary policy
a constitutional doctrine that ensures states cannot enact laws that take away the constitutional rights of American citizens that are enshrined in the Bill of Rights
selective incorporation
a view that the Constitution should be interpreted according to the original intent of the Framers and many conservatives support this view
original intent
the legal right to vote in political elections
the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system
fiscal federalism
a writ seeking judicial review
writ of certiorari
the process of taking legal action
expenditures that are determined by how many eligible beneficiaries there are for a program or by previous obligations of the government and that Congress therefore cannot easily control
uncontrollable spending
the belief that one’s political participation really matters and that there one vote can make a difference
political efficacy
the regular pattern in which women are more likely to support Democratic candidates, in part because they tend to be less conservative than men
gender gap
an electoral district that returns one office holder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature
single member districts
a type of veto occurring when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president and the president simply lets the bill die by neither signing or vetoing it
pocket veto
is the process of drawing United States electoral district boundaries
in elections in the United States, is a political campaign communication that expressly advocates the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate that is not made in cooperation, consultation or concert with or at the request or suggestion of a candidate, candidate’s authorized committee or political party.
independent expenditures

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