Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

A DNA-binding transcription metabolite that positively modulates an allosteric Enzyme or regulates one or more genes by increasing the rate of transcription. Activators
A protein required for recognition by rNA polymerases of specific stimulatory sequences in eukaryotic genes. TranscriptionFactors
The reduction of a chemical Compound to one less complex, as by splitting off one or more groups. degradation time
Gene elimination from differentiating cells in some protozoans, insects, and crustaceans. gene loss
An increase in the frequency of a gene or chromosomal region, as a result of replicating a DNA segment by in vivo or in vitro process, such as by gene duplication or polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Amplification
Genetic elements important in the function of a specific promoter. enhancers
A group of synthetic hormones steriods
The process by which introns are removed from hnRNA to produce mature messenger RNA that contains only exons. splicing
A permanent, heritable change in the nucleotide sequence in a gene or a chromosome. mutations
A biochemical process involving addition of methyl groups to DNA, silencing a gene or cluster of genes. methylation
DNA segments that are mobile that are capable of replicating and inserting copies of DNA at random sites in the same or a different chromosome. transponsons
The addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein or other organic molecule. Phosphorylation
Formation of an acetyl derivative. Acetylation
A molecule consisting of two subunits that fit together and work as one to build proteins according to the genetic sequence held within the messenger RNA. Ribosome Barriers

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DNA Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

A compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA. Nucleotide
A pair of parallel helices intertwined aboucomt a mon axis,especially that in the structure of the DNA molecule. Double Helix
Constrains imposed by the molecular structure of DNA and RNA on the formation of hydrogen bonds among the four purine and pyrimidine bases such that adenine pairs with thymine or uracil, and guanine pairs with cytosine. Base-pairing rules
Genetics. The process by which double-stranded DNA makes copies of itself, each strand, as it separates, synthesizing a complementary strand. Replication
Any of a class of enzymes involved in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid from its deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate precursors. DNA Polymerase
Molecular biology describes the two-step process, transcription and translation,by which the information in genes flows into proteins. Central Dogma
Any of a class of single-stranded molecules transcribed from DNA in the cell nucleus or in the mitochondrion or chloroplast RNA
The first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA. Transcription
An enzyme that synthesizes the formation of RNA from a DNA template during transcription. RNA Polymerase
The form of RNA in which genetic information transcribed from DNA as a sequence of bases is transferred to a ribosome. Messenger RNA
A type of RNA, distinguished by its length and abundance, functioning in protein synthesis as a component of ribosomes. Ribosomal RNA
A small RNA molecule, consisting of a strand of nucleotides folded into a clover-leaf shape, that picks up an unattached amino acid within the cell cytoplasm and conveys it to the ribosome for protein synthesis. Transfer RNA
The process follows transcription in which the DNA sequence is copied (or transcribed) into an mRNA. Translation
A triplet of adjacent nucleotides in the messenger RNA chain that codes for a specific amino acid in the synthesis of a protein molecule. Codon
A codon that stops the synthesis of a protein molecule. Stop Codon
A codon that starts the synthesis of protein molecule. Start Codon
A sequence of three nucleotides in a region of transfer RNA that recognizes a complementary coding triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA during translation by the ribosomes in protein biosynthesis. Anticodon
Occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene. Mutation
A type of mutation that causes a single nucleotide base substitution, insertion, or deletion of the genetic material, DNA or RNA. Point Mutation
A number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three. Frameshift Mutation

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DNA and RNA Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

A change in the genetic material of cell Mutation
Each three base set of genetic code. Codon
The cell uses information from mRNA to make proteins during _____________ . Translation
The language for naming RNA. Genetic code
A condition in which an organism has extra set of chromosome. Polyploidy
A group of three bases of tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of condon of mRNA. Anticodon
The tips of chromosomes. Telomere
The process of copying DNA from DNA. Replication
A kind of virus that infects bacteria cell. Bacteriophage
The process in which one stain of bacteria is change by a gene or genes from another bacteria. Transformation
An enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA. DNA Polymerase
A long chains of amino acids that make proteins Polypeptides
The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template , or pattern. Transcription
A type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to all cell part. mRNA
A type of RNA that carries each amino acid to form ribosomes. Transfer RNA
A singled-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose. RNA
A chemical or physical agent in the environment that interacts with DNA and may cause mutation. Mutagen
A cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes. Diploid
A cell that contains only one set of genes. Haploid
Chromosomes in which one set comes from male parent and another set comes from female parent Homologous

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chapter 12 biology Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

sequence of dna with proteins and traits gene
carries copies if instructions messenger rna
transfers amino acids transfer rna
helps assemble proteins ribosomal rna
dna copied into a rna sequence transcription
binds to dna and separates strands during transcriptions rna polymerase
dna enzyme binds to make rna promoter
not involved in coding for proteins intron
3 nucleotide sequence on messenger rna codon
decoding of mrna into a chain translation
trna molecule that are complimentary to a mrna codon anticodon
dna coiled in around proteins chromatin
dna coiled in the chromatin histone
cell duplicates its dna replication
enzyme involved in replication dna polymerase
1 strand of bacteria is changed by a gene transformation
virus that infects bacteria bacteriophage
monomer of nucleic acids nucleotide
A=T and G=C base pairing
change in the dna sequence mutation
changes in 1 or few nucleotides point mutation
mutation that shifts the reading frame frameshift mutation
extra set of chromosomes polyploidy
genes operating together operon
operon is turned off operator
cells become specialized differentiation
controls the differentiation of cells and tissue hoxgene
codes for proteins exon

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Transcription and Translation Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

The process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) RNA Polymerase / The main transcription enzyme Transcription
The main transcription enzyme, and and enzyme that links ribo-nucleotides into a growing RNA chain during transcription. RNA Polymerase
Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to a(n) ________ sequence near the beginning of a gene (directly or through helper proteins) Promoter
Transcription uses one of the two exposed DNA strands as a template. RNA polymerase "walks" along this strand of DNA in the 3' to 5' direction what is this strand called? Template Strand
This is recognized by one of the general transcription factors, allowing other transcription factors and eventually RNA polymerase to bind. It also contains lots of As and Ts, which make it easy to pull the strands of DNA apart. TATA Box
The stage when the RNA strand gets longer, thanks to the addition of new nucleotides. Elongation
RNA polymerase will keep transcribing until it gets signals to stop. What is the process of ending transcription called? Termination
Transcription factors help eukaryotic RNA polymerase recognize promoter sequences, forming this. Transcription Initiation
The process where a cell reads information from a molecule called a messenger RNA (mRNA) and uses this information to build a protein. Translation
When an mRNA is being translated by multiple ribosomes, the mRNA and ribosomes together are said to form a(n) ___________. Polyribosome
Translation involves “decoding” a messenger RNA (mRNA) and using its information to build a(n) _________, or chain of amino acids. Polypeptide
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of genetic code. Codons
Each tRNA has a(n) _________, a set of three nucleotides that binds to a matching mRNA codon through base pairing. The other end of the tRNA carries the amino acid that's specified by the codon. Anticodon
tRNAs bind to mRNAs inside of a protein-and-RNA in this structure. Ribosome
In this stage, the ribosome gets together with the mRNA and the first tRNA so translation can begin. Intiation
During initiation, a ribosome, mRNA, and an initiator tRNA must come together to form the __________, the molecular setup needed to start making a new protein. Initiation Complex
This process includes RNA splicing, the addition of a modified nucleotide 5' cap to the 5'end, and the addition of a poly-A tail to the 3' end. RNA processing
In Translation, this nucleotide sequence specifies the amino acid sequence. mRNA
A sequence within a primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed. Exons
A type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processign level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcription. Alternative RNA splicing
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription fo specific genes. Transcription factors

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Transcription/Translation Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
Twisted ladder shape/formed by 2 nucletides Double Helix
a subunit of nucleic acid formed from sugar Nucleotides
a simple nitrogen containing a molecule hat has the same properties as the base Nitrogen Base
a base that is constituent of DNA or RNA Pyrimidine
2 of the 5 bases in nucleic acid are adenine and guanine, are purines Purine
a professor of biochemisty in Colubia University Erwin Chargaff
Founders of DNA Watson and Crick
states that DNA from and cell all organisms should have 1:1 ratioof Pyrimidine and purine bases Chargaff's Rules
weak electrostatic bond formed by the attraction of opposite charges Hydrogen bonds
replication is a conserved mechanism that restricts DNA replication to only once per cell cycle Eukaryotic DNA
lack a distinct cell nucleus and their DNA Prokaryotic DNA
The things that hold your chromosomes Genes
material which chromsomes of organisms are composed of Chromatin
threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells Chromosome
ribonucleic acid RNA
a compound found in living tissue as a constituent base of RNA uracil
DNA as a sequence of bases is transferred to a ribosome. messenger RNA (mRNA)
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
RNA consisting of folded molecules that transport amino acids from the cytoplasm transfer RNA (tRNA)
ribonucleic acid polymerase RNA polymerase
he process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA transcription
the process in which ribosomes in a cell's cytoplasm create proteins translation
A molecule composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds protein

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Chapter 12 Vocab Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria. Transformation
Virus that infects bacteria. Bacteriophage
Monomer of nuclic acid made up of a 5-carbon sugar. Nucleotide
Principle that bonds with DNA. Base Pairing
Granular material visible within the nucleus. Chromatin
Protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin Histone
Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA. Replication
Enzyme involved in DNA replication. DNA Polymerase
Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait. Gene
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions. Messenger RNA
Are made of several dozens of protein. Ribosomal RNA
Type of RNA molecule thath transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis. Transfer RNA
Particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase Transcription
Similar to DNA polymerase, binds the DNA and seperates the DNA strands during trascription. RNA Polymerase
Regio of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA. Promoters
Sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein. Intron
Expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein. Exon
Three-nucleotide sequence on messanger RNA that codes for a single amino acid. Codon
Decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain. Translation
Group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon. Anticodon
Change in DNA sequence that affects genetic information. Mutations
Gene mutation involving changes in one or a few nucleotides. Point Mutations
That shifts the reading frame of a genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide. Frameshift Mutations
Condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy
Group of genes operating together. Operon
Interacts with a regulatory protein that controls the trascription of the operon. Operator
Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function Differentiation
Series of genes that controls the differentiation of cells nd tissues in an embryo. Hox Gene

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Replication, Transcription, Translation, and Mutations Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

Part of a chromosome, passed on from parents to offspring gene
Unwound DNA chromatin
Passed on from parents to offspring trait
In DNA, adenine pairs with _____ thymine
_____ contain nitrogen (2 words) nitrogenbases
The bases are often abbreviated to _, _, _ and _ atgc
The sides of DNA are made of _____ and phosphate. deoxyribose
_____ connect the bases (2 words) hydrogenbonds
DNA is shaped like a twisted ladder, or _____ (2 words) doublehelix
DNA replication is _____ semiconservative
DNA replication does not happen when the cell _____ divides
Helicase _____ DNA unzips
_____ creates a primer on the DNA strand by adding RNA nucleotides primase
_____ adds nucleotides and checks to make sure the new copy is correct (2 words) dnapolymerase
_____ joins the Okazaki fragments ligase
DNA is _____ antiparallel
Because it only makes 5'-3', DNA polymerase makes little sections for the other side called _____ (2 words) okazakifragments
DNA polymerase replicates one strand _____ and one not continuously
Ribosomes are located on the _____ (2 words) endoplasmicreticulum
_____ are made in the ribosomes proteins
Transcription is the process of making _____ mrna
Transcription happens in the _____ nucleus
RNA has _____ instead of thymine uracil
After transcription, mRNA leaves the nucleus and attaches itself to a _____ ribosome
Translation occurs in the _____, specifically on the ribosomes cytoplasm
The message from the mRNA will be translated into an _____ sequence (2 words) aminoacid
_____ carries amino acids to the site of protein synthesis trna
A(n) _____ is a sequence of three bases that codes for an amino acid codon
A(n) _____ is a sequence of three bases in a tRNA molecule anticodon
tRNA and mRNA are involved in _____ (2 words) proteinsynthesis
A change that takes place in DNA mutation
Mutations can be _____ spontaneous
A mutagen is a(n) _____, such as radiation, chemicals, high temperatures, or UV light mutagen
A mutation can change the _____ and be replicated when forming new cells (2 words) geneticcode
A mutation can be _____, beneficial, or harmful neutral
One base is placed incorrectly substitution
One base is deleted deletion
One base is added insertion
Type of mutation that changes the entire sequence of DNA following the mistake (2 words) frameshiftmutation
A and G are both _____ purines
T and C are _____ pyrimidines
A purine —> pyrimidine or pyrimidine —> purine mutation transversion
A purine —> purine or pyrimidine —> pyrimidine mutation transition

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DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

Type macromolecule know a nucleic acid. dna
a nucleid acid present in all living cell. rna
it is paired with guanine in double-stranded DNA. cytosine
a compoun that ocurrs in guano and fish scales. guanine
in DNA its place taken by thymine. uracil
a pyrimidine derivative, it is paired with adenine in double-stranded DNA thymine
a purine derivatinve, it is paired with thymine in double-stranded DNA. adenine
the shape of DNA. double helix
a sugar derived from ribose by replacing a hydroxyl group with hydrogen. deoxyribose
where does the mRNA travel to ribose
a compound consisting of a nucleosides linked to a phosphate group. nucleotide
process by which the genetic code puts together proteins in the cell. protein synthesis
messenger RNA, is a subtype of RNA. mrna
activated by enzyme that attaches a specific amino acid to the end trna
the first step of the central dogmainvolves the synthesis of mRNA from DNA in process transcription
once the mRNA is synthesized and processed, it moves to the ribosome. translation
a sphere- shaped structure within the cytoplasm of the cell that is composed of RNA and protein and is the site of protein synthesis. ribosome
the building blocks of all biological proteins. amino acid
set of three bases codon
opposite codon antidon
built from a large number of amino acids. polypeptide

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Gene Regulation Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

the time for a protein to digest a cell, reducing a chemical compound to one less complex Degradation time
errors in gene replication that proceed when there is a change of a DNA sequence within gene or chromosome; leads to genetic diversity Mutations
after responding to a signal, these regulatory proteins bind to a specific DNA sequence near a gene; they allow RNA polymerase III to attach to the promoter Transcription factors
also known as “jumping genes”, these small pieces of DNA are able to move within the genome from one area to another Transposons
when bound to DNA, these proteins turn genes on; they also make it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to the promoter. Activator
the more distal control elements that may be thousands of nucleotides upstream or downstream of a gene (far away) but is still associated with that one specific gene Enhancers
lipid; enters the nucleus and then indicates to other cells Steroids
due to these barriers, protein synthesis cannot proceed Ribosome barriers
a reaction that loosens the chromatin structure after phosphate groups are added (needs to be next to a methylated amino acid) Phosphorylation
a process that condenses chromatin after methyl groups are added to DNA or RNA; reduces transcription; occurs in most plants, animals and fungi Methylation
differentiating cells experience gene elimination, whether it is total or some deletion of the gene; unable to produce mRNA Gene loss
a reaction that loosens the chromatin structure after acetyl groups are attached to lysines in histone tails; allows transcription initiation Acetylation
different mRNA molecules are made from the same primary transcript; introns are removed from primary and exons are ligated together Splicing
occurs when enzyme cascades intensify the cell’s regulation to a sign; with each increase in range, the amount of activated products increases Amplification

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AP BIO CROSSWORD

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

Proteins in Eukaryota Cells that DNA wrap around and form structural units called nucleosomes. Histone Proteins
the state of chromatin that stains lightly, is partially uncoiled, and is typically active. Euchromatin
the state of chromatin in which it is dark-staining, genetically inactive, and tightly coiled. Heterochromatin
The addition of a methyl group to a cytosine residue on double-stranded DNA, a process which plays a major role in regulating gene expression and preventing the restriction of cutting DNA at their recognition sites. Methylation
a molecule that increases the activity of an enzyme or a protein that increases the production of a gene product in DNA transcription. Activators
are proteins involved in the process of converting, or transcribing, DNA into RNA. Transcription factors
removes introns from a transcribed pre-mRNA, a type of primary transcript. Spliceosomes
Any anabolic hormone used to promote muscle growth. Steroids
Decomposition of a compound, especially complex substances such as polymers and proteins, by stages, exhibiting well-defined intermediate products. Degradation time
escribes a reaction that introduces a functional acetyl group into a chemical compound. Acetylation
RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules. RNAi
a compound found in living cells that plays a role in the degradation of defective and superfluous proteins. Ubiquitin
degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds. Proteosome
a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene. Promoter
a normally active site that can be turned on in necessary situations. Inducible Operon
a normally inactive site that can be turned off in necessary situations. Repressible Operon

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