drug that prevents pain during surgery
anesthetic
the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasent farmers
enclosure
scottish engineer that looked at Newcomen's invention and set to improve it and make it more efficent in 1764
James Watt
melt in order to get the pure metal away from its waste matter
smelt
money or wealth used to invest in business or enterprise
capital
a business organizaton in such areas as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories
enterprise
person who assumes financial risk in the hope of making a profit
entrepreneur
system developed in the 18th century in which tasks were distributed to individuals who completed the work in their own homes; also known as cottage industry
putting out system
inventor of cotton gin
eli whitney
private road built by entrepreneurs who charged a toll, or fee, to travelers who used it
turnpike
city and one of the largest ports in England
liverpool
city in england; one of the leading industrial areas
manchester
movement of people from rural areas to cities
urbanization
multistory building divided into crowded apartments
tenement
workers organization
labor union
believed poor families should have fewer children to preserve food supply
thomas malthus
british economist and philospher that advocated utilitarianism.
jeremy bentham
set up model community in New Lanark, Scotland, to put his ideas into practice
robert owen
german philosopher; formed scientific socialism.
Karl Marx
idea that the goal in society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
utilitarianism
system in which the people as a whole rather than private individuals own all property and operate all businessess.
socialism
farms, factories, railways, and other large businessess that produce and distribute goods
means of production
form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx
communism
working calss
proletariat
political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system
social democracy