body cells; make up most of your body tissues and organs
somaticcells
sex cells
gametes
two chromosomes that have the same genetic information
homologouschromosomes
determines all traits except gender
autosomes
determines the sex or gender of individual
sexchromosomes
cell division process that forms gametes or haploids
meiosis
fusion of 2 gametes resulting in offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents
sexualreproduction
fusion of egg and sperm
fertilization
cell has two copies of each chromosome; one from the mother, and one from the father
diploid
cell has only one copy of each chromosome
haploid
gamete production; includes meiosis and maturation process
gametogenesis
male gamete
sperm
female gamete
egg
immature cells that will be recycled by the body
polarbody
characteristic inherited
trait
study of the heredity patterns and variation of organisms
genetics
type of organisms whose ancestors are genetically uniform
purebread
mating of 2 organisms
cross
organisms inherit 2 copies of each gene, one from each parent; organisms donate only one copy of each gene, segregate or separate, during gamete formation
lawofsegregation
specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein
gene
representation of a gene
allele
characteristic of having two of the same alleles
homozygous
characteristic of having two different alleles
heterozygous
all of an organism's genetic material
genome
collection of all of an organism's genetic information that codes for traits
genotype
physical appearance; expression of genes
phenotype
allele expressed when 2 different alleles are present in an organism's genotype
dominant
allele that isn't expressed unless 2 copies are present in an organism's genotype
recessive
grid system used to predict all possible genotypes resulting from a cross
punnetsquare
use of punnet square observing the possible and probabilities for one trait
monohybridcross
cross b/w an organism with unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype
testcross
cross b/w organisms involving 2 pairs of contrasting traits
dihybridcross
allele pairs separate independently of each other during gamete formation or traits are inherited together
lawofindependentassortment
likelihood a particular event will occur
probability
exchange of chromosome segments b/w homologous chromosomes
crossingover
genes closer together on the chromosome are more likely to be inherited together
geneticlinkage