set of fundamental principles and established precedents for the states and national government to follow
Constitution
the government does not have absolute power over the people
Constitutionalism
non-elected officials that make decisions unlike elected representatives
Bureaucracy
first ten amendments added to the constitution
Bill of Rights
when the people rule over the government and its power
Democracy
thought of one’s own belief/actions cannot be controlled by another force-unless said actions hinder or hurt another
Liberty
representation based off of population of a state and are elected
House of Representatives
where each branch of government is separated
Separation of Powers
where branches of government are divided and share power to keep the other in check and balance
Checks and Balances
when the courts see if an act is constitutional or not
Judicial Review
natural rights of life, liberty, and property that the government cannot impede or take away
Inalienable Rights
when the states remained sovereign and independent, and the national government had little to no power over the states. Gov could make treaties and alliances, but could not tax
Articles of Confederation
idea of devolution, to give back power from the federal gov to the state gov
New Federalism
separation of power between the state and national government
Federalism
powers shared by the federal and state government
Concurrent Powers
Article 8 in the Constitution, limited Congress powers (i.e: lay and collect taxes, to establishing post offices) and created the criteria of laws to be “necessary and proper”
Enumerated Powers
laid the groundwork for Judicial review, where the judicial branch reprimanded Congress and created a structurally sound power in the courts
Marbury vs Madison
Congress can regulate anything relating to commerce (imports/exports of goods and services)
Commerce Clause