the lowest temperature that is theoretically possible, at which the motion of particles that constitutes heat would be minimal.
the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat.
the quality of being hot; high temperature.
he emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles that cause ionization.
the heat required to raise the temperature of the unit mass of a given substance by a given amount (usually one degree).
a measure of the warmth or coldness of an object or substance with reference to some standard value. The temperature of two systems is the same when the systems are in thermal equilibrium.
is the property of a material to conduct heat.
the degree to which a specified material conducts electricity, calculated as the ratio of the current density in the material to the electric field that causes the flow of current.
he internal energy of an object due to the kinetic energy of its atoms and/or molecules.
the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature, through heat transfer.
the process of insulating against transmission of heat.
the harmful release of heated liquid into a body of water or heat released into the air as a waste product of a business.