a theory that explained how continents shift position on Earth's surface.
Continental Drift
the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass
Supercontinent
an underwater mountain range, formed by plate tectonics.
Mid-Ocean Ridge
linear zone where the Earth's crust and lithosphere are being pulled apart
rift
the formation of new areas of oceanic crust, which occurs through the upwelling of magma at midocean ridges
Sea Floor Spreading
branch of geophysics concerned with magnetism in rocks
Paleomagnetism
theory explaining the structure of the earth's crust
Plate tectonics
the upper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithosphere
Asthenosphere
the layer of granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks which form the ocean floors
Oceanic crust
sudden and violent shaking of the ground
Earthquake
mountain or hill,having a crater or vent through which lava, rock fragments, hot vapor, and gas are being or have been erupted
Volcano
a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
Pacific Ring Of Fire
hypothetical supercontinent that included all current land masses, believed to have been in existence before the continents broke apart during the Triassic and Jurassic Periods.
Pangaea
two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other
Divergent Boundry
two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide.
Convergent boundary
These boundaries mark the collision between two of the planet's tectonic plates
Subduction Zone
curved chain of volcanic islands located at a tectonic plate margin ( at the edge).
Island Arc
a type of fault that moves away from each other horizontally.
Transform boundary
movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity
Convection
the layer of granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks which form the continents
Continental Crust