country where a single party controls the government and every aspect of people's lives
totalitarian state
Those countries fighting against the Axis powers. i.e. Britain, France, USA, Canada, USSR etc
allies
Great Britain's Prime Minister, Churchill was an eloquent speaker, who steeled the British to defy the Nazis, even as the Luftwaffe bombed London nightly
Winston Churchill
The fascist leader of Nazi Germany and the architect of the Holocaust which killed six million Jewish people.
Adolf Hitler
The communist leader of the Soviet Union.
Joseph Stalin
The seeds for Germany's discontent and susceptibility to a racist like Hitler began with the end of WWI.Germany signed this which required it give up 13% of its territory including Alsace-Lorraine. That area alone included 6 million residents, vast raw materials (65% of Germany's iron ore reserves and 45% of its coal), and 10% of its factories. Germany also had to pay for the war's damages.
Treaty of Versailles
Germany, Italy, and Japan
axis
December 1944 — January 1945. Hitler's final, surprise counteroffensive to the Allied invasion. Took place in the Ardennes, a densely forested mountain range between France and Belgium, and was an attempt to recapture Antwerp, the Allies' major supply port. A blizzard kept Allied airplanes grounded, but the U.S. Army was able to move its troops through the snow to double its number of soldiers and triple its armored tanks in four days. It was the largest and bloodiest battle the Americans fought, with 19,000 soldiers killed. The hard-won Allied victory was a turning point in the war.
Battle of the Bulge
"Lightening war," a surprise attack devised by Hitler, in which land-and-air attacks were coordinated, quick and brutal. Hitler used fast-moving tanks called Panzers, with infantry transported by trucks and dive-bombing planes that strafed soldiers and refugees. Battle maps from the Combat Studies Institute offer more information about Blitzkrieg and paths taken during the war.
Blitzkrieg
June 6, 1944, the Allied landing on France's Normandy beaches to begin the liberation of Europe. The D doesn't stand for anything other than "day." About 156,000 American, British, and Canadian troops landed in Normandy under heavy attack by German strongholds. Of those, the American forces numbered 23,250 on Utah Beach, 34,250 on Omaha Beach, and 15,500 airborne troops. Millions more men and women were involved in its preparations
D-Day
Short for Unterseeboote, German submarines.
U-boats
A political system promoted by Hitler and his ally, Italian dictator Mussolini, that called for citizens to be unquestioningly loyal to the nation and obedient of its leader. The needs of the state outweighed the needs, beliefs, or freedoms of the individual. Emphasis was on national pride, traditions, and racial purity. There was no freedom of speech. Foreigners — those who were simply minority ethnic or religious groups included — were hated and persecuted.
Fascism
A member of the National Socialist German Workers' Party that Hitler came to lead. A believer in Hitler's fascism, anti-Semitism, and Aryan supremacy.
nazi
The codename for the U.S. project to produce an atomic bomb.
Manhattan Project
The act of genocide carried out by Germany on the Jewish population of Europe
Holocaust
"lightning war"; swift attacks launched by Germany in WWII during the night
blitzkrieg
Germany's failed attempt to subdue Britain in 1940 in preparation for invasion (Germans bombed Britain continuously but Britain resisted with fighter pilots and Hitler gave up invasion)
Battle of Britain
a 1942 battle in the Pacific during which American planes sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers (protected Hawaii)
Battle of Midway
code name for the Allied invasion of Europe in 1944
Operation Overlord
German counter-attack in December 1944 that temporarily slowed the allied invasion of Germany (Audie Murphy was the hero)
Battle of the Bulge
during WWII, Allied strategy of capturing Japanese-held islands to gain control of the Pacific Ocean (American ships shelled an island; troops waded ashore; hand-to-hand fighting occured until island was captured)
island hopping
during WWII, Navajo soldiers who used their own language to radio vital messages during the island-hopping campaign
Navajo code-talkers
WWII Japanese pilots trained to make a suicidal crash attack, usually upon a ship
kamikaze
message sent by the Allies in July 1945 callin for the Japanese to surrender
Potsdam Declaration
Nazi war crime trials held in 1945 and 1946
Nuremberg Trials
Organization created by isolationists who argued that the United States should keep out of Europe's business.
American First Committee
Process by which a government gains control over a territory not presently under their jurisdiction.
annex
policies, views, or actions that harm or discriminate against Jews
Anti-Semitism
British-American declaration that stated the countries aims for the outcome of the war. Stated people of every nation should be free to choose their own form of government and live free of fear and want, disarmament, and a permanent system of general security.
atlantic charter
policy by which Great Britain and France agreed to Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland in agreement for not taking any additional Czech territory.
appeasment
April 1942, American soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors. It is called the Death March because so many of the prisoners died en route.
Bataan Death March
an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
battle of britian
1939; Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
cash and carry
protective measures in case of attack
civil defense
Political leader who rules a country with absolute power, usually by force
dictator
giving up military weapons
Disarmament
Wiping out an entire group of people
genocide
the gathering of resources and preparation for war.
mobilization
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; modified in 1939 to allow aid to the Allies
Neutrality Acts
US military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan on December 7, 1941, bringing the United States into World War II
Pearl Harbor