the fluid portion of the blood
plasma
red blood cells
erythrocytes
the oxygen-transporting pigment of erythrocytes
hemoglobin
white blood cell
leukocytes
a white blood cell with secretory granules in its cytoplasm (ex. eosinophil/basophil)
granulocytes
the most abundant of the white blood cells
neutrophils
granular white blood cells whose granules readily take up a stain called eosin
eosinophils
white blood cells whose granules stain deep blue with basic dye; have a relatively pale nucleus and granular-appearing cytoplasm
basophils
white blood cells with a one-lobed nucleus. no granules in cytoplasm
agranuloctyes
agranular white blood cells formed in the bone marrow that mature in the lymphoid tissue
lymphocytes
large single-nucleus white blood cell; agranular leukocyte
monocytes
one of the irregular cell fragments of blood; involved in clotting
platelets
formation of blood cells
hematopoiesis
stem cells that give rise to all the formed elements of the blood
hemocytoblast
the stopping of a flow of blood
hemostasis
the stout wall separating the lower chambers of the heart from one another
interventricular septum
begins at the base of the right ventricle, branches into two pulmonary arteries which deliver deoxygenated blood to the corresponding lung
pulmonary trunk
bicuspid and tricuspid
atrioventricular valves
cord-like tendons that connect the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve and the mitral valve in the heart (heart strings)
chordae tendineae
lub dub, lub dub
heart sounds
a condition in which the heart produces or is apt to produce a recurring sound indicative of disease or damage
murmur
abnormally high blood pressure
hypertension
a disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on their inner walls
atherosclerosis
the membranous sac enveloping the heart
pericardium
a chamber of the heart receiving blood from the veins; superior heart chambers
atria
discharging chambers of the heart
ventricles
system of blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs for gas exchange
pulmonary circulation
major systemic artery; arises from the left ventricle of the heart
aorta
systems of blood vessels that carries nutrient- and oxygen-rich blood to all the body organs
systemic circulation
valves that prevent blood return to the ventricles after contraction
semilunar valves
the contraction phase of heart activity
systole
a period (between contractions) of relaxation of the heart during which it fills with blood
diastole
a volume of blood ejected by a ventricle during systole
stroke volume
sequence of events encompassing one complete contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles of the heart
cardiac cycle

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