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Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis

Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities

The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn

Official count or survey of a population

A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like

A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation

A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data

Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range

Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data

Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number

Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions

Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only.

Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point.

Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied

Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time

Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome

Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence

a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable.

The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not.

noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment.

denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test.

With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions.

the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated.

type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval.

One of the non-probability sampling methods

Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata

sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population

the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population

the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling.

a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected

subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen.

Subjects that are very carefully chosen

subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection

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the entire set of items from which data can be selected

divide an ordered data set into 4 equal parts

a numerical description of a sample characteristic

information about a product or process, usually in numerical order

score that occurs most often

middle score when listed in numerical order

average

a subset, or portion, of the population.

the square root of variance

a census occurs when everyone in the population is contacted

a mistake causing results that are not representative of the population

have a finite number of distinct values or counts

consists of attributes, labels, or non-numerical entries

consist of numerical measurements or count

the difference between the greatest data element and the least data element

data that are far away from most of the data points

the fact that the value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling

a symmetric distribution can be divided at the center so that each half is a mirror image of the other

he average of the squares of the deviations of the observations from their mean

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numbers or information describing some charactristics

collection of data from every element in a population

Measured characteristic of a sample

Data with the property that the number of possible values is either a finite number or a "countable" number

level of measurement of data

A situation that occurs when the effects from two or more variables cannot be distinguished from each other

A group of subjects that are similar in the ways that might affect the outcome of an experiment

a sample of the most available subjects in the population used to obtain quick results.

difference between a sample result and the true population result

sample of a particular size selected so that every possible sample of the same size has the same chance of being chosen

collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, organizing, ...etc based on data

Subset of a population

Data consisting of numbers representing counts or measurements

data that covers a range of values without gaps

Level of measurement of data

data is observed, measured, and collected at one point in time

Procedure used in experiments where the subject doesnt know they sare being tested on

Repition of an experiment

samples are drawn from each stratum

Errors from external factors not related to sampling

effect that occurs when an untreated subject incorrectly believes that he or she is receiving a real treatment

complete and entire collection of elements to be studied

measured characteristic of a population

Data that can be seperated into different categories distinguished by some nonnumeric characteristic

Level of measurement of data

Level of measuremtn of data

data collected by going back in time

treatment where the person does not know that are getting it

every kth element is selceted

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numbers or information describing some characteristic

collection of data from every element of a population

measured characteristic of a sample

data where the number of possibilities is finite

characterizes data may be arranged in order

data you find and observe

situation occurs when effects of 2 or more variables can not be distinguished from each other

groups of subjects that are similar

data is readily available

difference between population result and true population

sample of particular size

methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, summerizing, etc.

subset of a population

observations made by counting

infinatley many possible values

level of measurement

data is observed from one point of time

experiments undergo a placebo

repetition of an expiriment

samples are drawn from groups

untreated subject believes they are under treatment

entire collection of elements to be studied

measured characteristics

observation using senses

characterizes data by names and labels

data that can be arranged in order like a fraction

data is collected from the past

subject and person giving subject treatment are under a placebo

every (x) element is selected

randomly selecting subjects in a population

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inferential statistics

confounding variable

qualitative data

sampling error

nominal level

random sample

randomization

block design

experimental

ratio level

replication

population

parameter

statistic

treatment

blinding

placebo

sample

survey

data

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Inferential Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Confounding Variable

Stratified Sample

Quantitative Data

Qualitative Data

Cluster Sample

Interval Level

Random Sample

Ordinal Level

Nominal Level

Randomization

Ratio Level

Replication

Statistics

Population

Parameter

Blinding

Sample

Data

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When groups of experimental units are similar, it is often a good idea to gather them together into blocks.

When the levels of one factor are associated with the levels in another factor in such a way that their effects cannot be separated.

The experimental units assigned to a baseline treatment level, typically either the default treatment, which is well understood, or a null, placebo treatment. Their responses provide a basis for comparison

A study that manipulates factor levels to create treatments, randomly assigns subjects to these treatment levels, and then compares the responses of the subject groups across treatment levels.

Individuals on whom an experiment is performed. usually called subjects or participants when they are human

a variable whose levels are manipulated by the experimenter. Experiments attempt to discover the effects that differences in factor levels may ave on differences in treatment level

The specific values that the experimenter chooses for a factor

In a retrospective or prospective study, subjects who are similar in ways not under study may be matched to reduce variation and then compared with each other on the variables of interest.

A study based on data in which no manipulation of factors has been employed

placebo a treatment known to have no effect, administered so that all groups experience the same conditions.

The tendency of many human subjects (often 20% or more of experiment subjects) to show a response even when administered a fake treatment.

An observational study in which subjects are followed to observe future outcomes. It is not an experiment and typically focuses on estimating differences among groups that might appear as the groups are followed during the course of the study.

To be valid, an experiment must assign experimental units to treatment groups at random

A variable whose values are compared across different treatments. In a randomized experiment, large response differences can be attributed to the effect or differences in treatment level.

An observational study in which subjects are selected and then their previous conditions or behaviors are determined. Usually they're focused on estimating differences between groups or associations between variables

The process, intervention, or other controlled circumstance applied to randomly assigned experimental units. They are the different levels of a single factor or are made up of combinations of levels of two or more factors

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Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses.

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions

The collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest

A subset of a population

A numerical description of a population characteristic

A numerical description of a sample characteristic

The branch of statistics that involves the organization, summmarization, and display of data

Consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries

Consist of numerical measurements or counts

Occurs when an experiment cannot tell the difference between the effects of the different factors on a variable.

A technique where the subject does not know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or a placebo

A process of randomly assigning subjects to different treatment groups.

The repetition of an experiment using a large group of subjects.

A count or measure of an entire population.

On in which every member of he population has an equal chance of being selected.

Depending on the focus of the study, members of the population are divided into two or more subsets

Divide the population into groups and select the members in one or more groups

Each member of the population is assigned a number

Convenience Sample

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x variable (2 words)

y variable (2 words)

all the explanatory variables

the choices you have for each factor

the combinations you will test

used for comparison (can get no treatment or old treatment (2 words)

scientists only observe, no treatment is imposed (2 words)

when a study systematically favors one outcome over another

when subjects voluntarily choose to be in the sample (3 words)

some groups of people are ignored

some subjects that are chosen do not answer (3 words)

when subjects give incorrect answers because they forgot or are lying (2 words)

a type of sampling that gives every individual and every group of size n an equal chance of being chosen

when you select some subjects from each subgroup

when you select whoever you run into to be in the sample

choosing every nth person

the subject nor the person handing out the treatments know if the subjects are getting the treatment or placebo

a special case of block design in which each block consists of only 2 subjects (3 words)

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Results from an experiment

The relationship between two events

Analyzing and collecting data to draw conclusions

The amount of people living in a certain area

A survey/count of a population

Numbers that summarize a population's data.

A piece of data from a large study

Data that can be measured and represented by numbers

Data that describes

Separate, or distinct

Data that can't be restricted to separate values

Used to label variables with no quantitative values

Data type with ordered catagories

Draws inferences from a sample to a population where the independent variable is out of the person's control

Observes data from a population at a specific time

A study that looks back on suspected risk that affect the outcome.

Study that follows a group over time to see the affect of certain differences on the outcome of the study

A variable that influences the independent and dependent variables.

Not telling patients if they're taking a placebo or not.

The affect of thinking you're taking a medicine when in reality you aren't.

When neither the researchers nor the patients know who is receiving the medication and who isn't

When test subjects are split into subgroups because of traits they closely share with a few people

A remake of the conditions in which an experiment is done to increase consistency

Dividing population size by sample size

Polling people who are easy to reach

Splitting up a group into 4 parts and pulling data from each one separately

When people are split into clusters and then their data is compared to the data of the whole population

Error in an analysis from not representing teh sample

Errors that arise from not from systematic errors

Making a sample with the goal of reaching every possible sample in a population

Each member of a subset has an equal chance of being chosen

When subjects are put into blocks through random selection

When subjects are randomly assigned to treatments

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observations(such as measurements, genders, survey responses) that have been collected

a collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data

the complete collection of all elements ( scores, people, measurements, and so on) to be studied. The collection is complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied

the collection of data from every member of the population

a sub-collection of elements drawn from a population

characteristic of the population, numeric quantity that describes the population

numeric calculated characteristic of a sample

data that can be measured numerically. Things that can be measured precisely -

data cannot be expressed as a number

characteristic that can only have values at specific values

characteristic that can have any possible value

discrete, categorical variables

ordered measurements (not placed on a scale

equaled leveled increments on a scale

equal leveled increments on a scale with a meaningful zero point

long term approach to collecting data by making detailed observation

type of data collected by observing many subjects (such as individuals, firms, countries, or regions) at the same point of time, or without regard to differences in time.

study that studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence on the development of a disease, and are compared to another group of equivalent individuals that were not exposed to that factor

the outcome has not occurred at the time the study is initiated, and information is collected over time to assess relationships with the outcome.

variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable

is the practice of not telling subjects whether they are receiving a placebo. In this way, subjects in the control and treatment groups experience the placebo effect equally

a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment

denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test.

the arranging of experimental units in groups (blocks) that are similar to one another.

repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated

a type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval.

made up of people who are easy to reach

method of sampling from a population

the total population is divided into these groups (known as clusters) and a simple random sample of the groups is selected.

the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population.

including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling.

a subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen.

a subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen.