Type
Crossword
Description

A method that amplifies DNA PCR
3 base sequence that codes for a amino acids codon
Scientist who developed DNA sequencing method Sanger
DNA building block nucleotide
Process that removes introns from messenger RNA Splicing
An organisms complete set of genetic instructions Genome
Process of copying DNA into RNA Transcription
Process of converting information in RNA into protein translation
protein making factory ribosome
Region close to gene that regulates transcription Promoter
A non-sex chromosome autosome
Place in eukaryotic cells where chromosomes are housed nucleus
thermostable enzyme used in PCR taq polymerase

DNA Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

A compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA. Nucleotide
A pair of parallel helices intertwined aboucomt a mon axis,especially that in the structure of the DNA molecule. Double Helix
Constrains imposed by the molecular structure of DNA and RNA on the formation of hydrogen bonds among the four purine and pyrimidine bases such that adenine pairs with thymine or uracil, and guanine pairs with cytosine. Base-pairing rules
Genetics. The process by which double-stranded DNA makes copies of itself, each strand, as it separates, synthesizing a complementary strand. Replication
Any of a class of enzymes involved in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid from its deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate precursors. DNA Polymerase
Molecular biology describes the two-step process, transcription and translation,by which the information in genes flows into proteins. Central Dogma
Any of a class of single-stranded molecules transcribed from DNA in the cell nucleus or in the mitochondrion or chloroplast RNA
The first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA. Transcription
An enzyme that synthesizes the formation of RNA from a DNA template during transcription. RNA Polymerase
The form of RNA in which genetic information transcribed from DNA as a sequence of bases is transferred to a ribosome. Messenger RNA
A type of RNA, distinguished by its length and abundance, functioning in protein synthesis as a component of ribosomes. Ribosomal RNA
A small RNA molecule, consisting of a strand of nucleotides folded into a clover-leaf shape, that picks up an unattached amino acid within the cell cytoplasm and conveys it to the ribosome for protein synthesis. Transfer RNA
The process follows transcription in which the DNA sequence is copied (or transcribed) into an mRNA. Translation
A triplet of adjacent nucleotides in the messenger RNA chain that codes for a specific amino acid in the synthesis of a protein molecule. Codon
A codon that stops the synthesis of a protein molecule. Stop Codon
A codon that starts the synthesis of protein molecule. Start Codon
A sequence of three nucleotides in a region of transfer RNA that recognizes a complementary coding triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA during translation by the ribosomes in protein biosynthesis. Anticodon
Occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene. Mutation
A type of mutation that causes a single nucleotide base substitution, insertion, or deletion of the genetic material, DNA or RNA. Point Mutation
A number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three. Frameshift Mutation

chapter 12 biology Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

sequence of dna with proteins and traits gene
carries copies if instructions messenger rna
transfers amino acids transfer rna
helps assemble proteins ribosomal rna
dna copied into a rna sequence transcription
binds to dna and separates strands during transcriptions rna polymerase
dna enzyme binds to make rna promoter
not involved in coding for proteins intron
3 nucleotide sequence on messenger rna codon
decoding of mrna into a chain translation
trna molecule that are complimentary to a mrna codon anticodon
dna coiled in around proteins chromatin
dna coiled in the chromatin histone
cell duplicates its dna replication
enzyme involved in replication dna polymerase
1 strand of bacteria is changed by a gene transformation
virus that infects bacteria bacteriophage
monomer of nucleic acids nucleotide
A=T and G=C base pairing
change in the dna sequence mutation
changes in 1 or few nucleotides point mutation
mutation that shifts the reading frame frameshift mutation
extra set of chromosomes polyploidy
genes operating together operon
operon is turned off operator
cells become specialized differentiation
controls the differentiation of cells and tissue hoxgene
codes for proteins exon

Transcription and Translation Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

The process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) RNA Polymerase / The main transcription enzyme Transcription
The main transcription enzyme, and and enzyme that links ribo-nucleotides into a growing RNA chain during transcription. RNA Polymerase
Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to a(n) ________ sequence near the beginning of a gene (directly or through helper proteins) Promoter
Transcription uses one of the two exposed DNA strands as a template. RNA polymerase "walks" along this strand of DNA in the 3' to 5' direction what is this strand called? Template Strand
This is recognized by one of the general transcription factors, allowing other transcription factors and eventually RNA polymerase to bind. It also contains lots of As and Ts, which make it easy to pull the strands of DNA apart. TATA Box
The stage when the RNA strand gets longer, thanks to the addition of new nucleotides. Elongation
RNA polymerase will keep transcribing until it gets signals to stop. What is the process of ending transcription called? Termination
Transcription factors help eukaryotic RNA polymerase recognize promoter sequences, forming this. Transcription Initiation
The process where a cell reads information from a molecule called a messenger RNA (mRNA) and uses this information to build a protein. Translation
When an mRNA is being translated by multiple ribosomes, the mRNA and ribosomes together are said to form a(n) ___________. Polyribosome
Translation involves “decoding” a messenger RNA (mRNA) and using its information to build a(n) _________, or chain of amino acids. Polypeptide
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of genetic code. Codons
Each tRNA has a(n) _________, a set of three nucleotides that binds to a matching mRNA codon through base pairing. The other end of the tRNA carries the amino acid that's specified by the codon. Anticodon
tRNAs bind to mRNAs inside of a protein-and-RNA in this structure. Ribosome
In this stage, the ribosome gets together with the mRNA and the first tRNA so translation can begin. Intiation
During initiation, a ribosome, mRNA, and an initiator tRNA must come together to form the __________, the molecular setup needed to start making a new protein. Initiation Complex
This process includes RNA splicing, the addition of a modified nucleotide 5' cap to the 5'end, and the addition of a poly-A tail to the 3' end. RNA processing
In Translation, this nucleotide sequence specifies the amino acid sequence. mRNA
A sequence within a primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed. Exons
A type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processign level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcription. Alternative RNA splicing
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription fo specific genes. Transcription factors

Protein Synthesis Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

double membrane that acts as the storehouse for most cell's DNA Nucleus
molecule that allows for transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis RNA
monomer that forms DNA Nucleotide
in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder Double Helix
process by which DNA is copied Replication
enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides DNA polymerase
either of the two sides that make up a double helix of DNA complementary side
matches Thymine and Uracil Adenine
matches with Cytosine Guanine
matches with Guanine Cytosine
matches with Adenine Thymine
matches with Adenine Uracil
nitrogenous base, has two circular ring structures, A, G match with a pyrimidine Purine
organelle that links amino acids together to form proteins Ribosome
nitrogenous base, has one circular ring structure, C, T match with purine Pyrimidine
process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA Transcription
process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced Translation
enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary strand RNA polymerase
carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm Messenger RNA
RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein Ribosomal RNA
form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis Transfer RNA
sequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid Codon
sequence of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during translation Anticodon
molecule that makes up proteins, composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur Amino Acid
Polymer composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; folds into a particular structure depending on bonds between amino acids Protein

DNA and RNA Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A change in the genetic material of cell Mutation
Each three base set of genetic code. Codon
The cell uses information from mRNA to make proteins during _____________ . Translation
The language for naming RNA. Genetic code
A condition in which an organism has extra set of chromosome. Polyploidy
A group of three bases of tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of condon of mRNA. Anticodon
The tips of chromosomes. Telomere
The process of copying DNA from DNA. Replication
A kind of virus that infects bacteria cell. Bacteriophage
The process in which one stain of bacteria is change by a gene or genes from another bacteria. Transformation
An enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA. DNA Polymerase
A long chains of amino acids that make proteins Polypeptides
The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template , or pattern. Transcription
A type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to all cell part. mRNA
A type of RNA that carries each amino acid to form ribosomes. Transfer RNA
A singled-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose. RNA
A chemical or physical agent in the environment that interacts with DNA and may cause mutation. Mutagen
A cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes. Diploid
A cell that contains only one set of genes. Haploid
Chromosomes in which one set comes from male parent and another set comes from female parent Homologous

Gene Regulation Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

A DNA-binding transcription metabolite that positively modulates an allosteric Enzyme or regulates one or more genes by increasing the rate of transcription. Activators
A protein required for recognition by rNA polymerases of specific stimulatory sequences in eukaryotic genes. TranscriptionFactors
The reduction of a chemical Compound to one less complex, as by splitting off one or more groups. degradation time
Gene elimination from differentiating cells in some protozoans, insects, and crustaceans. gene loss
An increase in the frequency of a gene or chromosomal region, as a result of replicating a DNA segment by in vivo or in vitro process, such as by gene duplication or polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Amplification
Genetic elements important in the function of a specific promoter. enhancers
A group of synthetic hormones steriods
The process by which introns are removed from hnRNA to produce mature messenger RNA that contains only exons. splicing
A permanent, heritable change in the nucleotide sequence in a gene or a chromosome. mutations
A biochemical process involving addition of methyl groups to DNA, silencing a gene or cluster of genes. methylation
DNA segments that are mobile that are capable of replicating and inserting copies of DNA at random sites in the same or a different chromosome. transponsons
The addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein or other organic molecule. Phosphorylation
Formation of an acetyl derivative. Acetylation
A molecule consisting of two subunits that fit together and work as one to build proteins according to the genetic sequence held within the messenger RNA. Ribosome Barriers

Molecular Genetics Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
Ribonucleic acid RNA
Macromolecule that stores and transmits genetic information Nucleic acid
Monomer of nucleic acids Nucleotide
DNA replication in which half one of the two strands is new and the other is the original Semiconservative replication
The process of creating proteins using DNA and RNA Protein synthesis
Process in which the nitrogen bases of a DNA strand are copied into messenger RNA Transcription
The process in which the information from the messenger RNA is copied and connected to form amino acids Translation
Three nucleotide bases that together correspond with a specific amino acid Codon
Three nucleotide bases that correspond with a codon of messenger RNA Anticodon
Modifying an organism's genes to change its characteristics Genetic engineering
The mating of two organisms to produce specific characteristics that are seen as desirable Selective breeding
DNA in which some parts have been inserted either naturally or intentionally Recombinant DNA
An organisms complete set of DNA Genome
A mutation that occurs on an organism's gene Genetic Mutation
A mutation that occurs on an organism's chromosome Chromosomal Mutations

Chapter 12 Vocab Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria. Transformation
Virus that infects bacteria. Bacteriophage
Monomer of nuclic acid made up of a 5-carbon sugar. Nucleotide
Principle that bonds with DNA. Base Pairing
Granular material visible within the nucleus. Chromatin
Protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin Histone
Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA. Replication
Enzyme involved in DNA replication. DNA Polymerase
Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait. Gene
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions. Messenger RNA
Are made of several dozens of protein. Ribosomal RNA
Type of RNA molecule thath transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis. Transfer RNA
Particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase Transcription
Similar to DNA polymerase, binds the DNA and seperates the DNA strands during trascription. RNA Polymerase
Regio of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA. Promoters
Sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein. Intron
Expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein. Exon
Three-nucleotide sequence on messanger RNA that codes for a single amino acid. Codon
Decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain. Translation
Group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon. Anticodon
Change in DNA sequence that affects genetic information. Mutations
Gene mutation involving changes in one or a few nucleotides. Point Mutations
That shifts the reading frame of a genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide. Frameshift Mutations
Condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy
Group of genes operating together. Operon
Interacts with a regulatory protein that controls the trascription of the operon. Operator
Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function Differentiation
Series of genes that controls the differentiation of cells nd tissues in an embryo. Hox Gene

DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis Word Search

Type
Word Search
Description

Adenine
Amino acid
Anticodon
Chromosome
Codon
Complementary
Cytoplasm
Cytosine
Deoxyribose
DNA
Double stranded
Guanine
Helicase
Helix
Message
mRNA
Mutation
Nitrogen base
Nucleotide
Nucleus
Peptide bond
Phosphate
Polymerase
Protein
Replication
Ribose
Ribosomal
Ribsome
RNA
rRNA
Single stranded
Start
Stop
Sugar
Thymine
Transcription
Transfer
Translation
tRNA
Uracil

Protein Synthesis Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

1st word Adenine
2nd word Amino Acid
3rd word Anticodon
4th word Codon
5th word Cytoplasm
6th word Cytosine
7th Dna
8th Dna ligase
9th Dna polymerase
10 Double-Stranded
11 Exon
12 Guanine
13 Helicase
14 Hydrogen Bond
15 Intron
16 Mutation
17 mRNA
18 Nitrogen bases
19 Nucleotide
20 Nucleus
21 Peptide Bond
22 Polypeptide
23 Replication
24 Ribosome
25 Rna Polymerase
26 rRna
27 Semiconservative
28 Single-Stranded
29 Thymine
30 Topoisomerase