Contain one or more abrasive agents, foaming agent and flavoring material
decreases plaque accumulation and gingivitis
antibacterial agent-treats oral mucositis
used for bleeding or irritation
relief of pharyngeal irritation for NG tube, sore throat, and oral surgery
used for hyperacidity, indigestion, reflux esophagitis, gastric peptic, and duodenal ulcers
defoaming agent breaks up gas bubbles in the stomach
produces solution floats on top of food or gastric contents
agent that can cause confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, slurred speech, gynecomastia, hepatotoxicity that needs to be reported.
type of prostaglandins that decreases pain and swelling and can cause uterine contractions contraindicated in pregnancy
inhibits gastric secretion by inhibiting gastric acid pump of the stomach
when swallowed forms a thick paste that adheres to the ulcer therefore protecting ulcers from acid
used to relieve chemotherapy induced emesis
Dopamine antagonists agent
good for chemotherapy induced nausea
agent used for motion sickness, and N/V associated with pregnancy
agent that is used for sedation, reduction of anxiety and possible depression of vomiting center and amnesic effect. It is most useful in combo with other antiemetics.
class that is marijuana and is used for chemotherapy patients
chemical that acts to promote the evacuation of the bowel
drug that is orally taken and acts within 6-10 hours (best given at bedtime or early am)
used to relieve acute constipation and post-op flatus
laxative agent used to decrease ammonia levels to treat chronic constipation
hypertonic compounds that attract water into the intestine from surrounding tissues, usually acts within 1-3 hours
lubricates the intestinal wall and softens the stool, onset is 6-8 hours and inhibits fat soluble vitamin absorption
the safest laxative
binds with opiate receptors in the GI tract, inhibits constipating effects of opiods
the Latin term for pharmacist
a preparation that softens the skin
able to destroy or inhibit the growth of fungi
a painful form of arthritis characterized by defective metabolism of uric acid
a program established by the FDA for reporting drug and medical product safety alerts and label changes
any agent that binds to opioid receptors
an inactive substance that is converted to a drug in the body by the action of enzymes or other chemicals
permission by a prescriber to replenish a prescription
an act that causes harm or injury to a person intentionally or because of negligence
a microscopic, nonliving organism that replicates exclusively inside the host's cell using parts of the cell, including DNA, ribosomes, and proteins
non-opioid analgesic given for mild to moderate pain; should be limited to 4 grams daily according to the FDA
inhibits production of uric acid; used to treat gout
benzodiazepine; treats anxiety and panic disorders; Xanax
calcium channel blocker; antihypertensive; works by systemic vasodilation to decrease blood pressure; Norvasc
antibacterial; may be given for pneumonia, sinusitis, acute bronchitis, middle ear infection, urethritis, pertussis, etc; Zithromax
NSAID; low dose taken routinely is often recommended to prevent heart attack
given to treat high cholesterol and prevent cardiovascular disease
most frequently given by suppository; stimulant laxative
opioid analgesic used for management of moderate to severe acute pain; binds to CNS opioid receptors to block perception of pain; Buprenex
beta blocker; antihypertensive; lowers heart rate and blood pressure; Coreg
anti-infective; binds to cell wall membrane to cause cell death against susceptible bacteria; Rocephin
fat-soluble vitamin that promotes absorption of Ca and Phos
anti-infective; fluoroquinolones; broad spectrum; used against gram positive (MRSA) and gram negative (E-coli) pathogens
antihypertensive; adrenergic; for management of mild to moderate HTN; inhibits vasoconstriction to reduce blood pressure; Catapres
opioid analgesic; often combined with guaifenesin or promethazine for cough suppressant that affects parts of the brain to reduce urge to cough
long-acting insulin that stimulates peripheral glucose uptake by binding to insulin receptors; Levemir
sodium; stool softener
reduces size of prostate and decreases urinary symptoms of BPH
low molecular weight heparin; prevention of VTE, DVT, PE
antidiabetic; promotes insulin secretion and glucose-lowering mechanisms; Byetta
used to prevent acid reflux/GERD; short-term treatment of duodenal ulcers
opioid analgesic; short half-life; often given by IV or patch; CNS depressant
as a natural or synthetic substance that is used to produce physiological or psychological effects in humans or other higher order animals
analgesics, meaning they relieve pain by a depressing action on the central nervous system.
readily extracted from opium and is used to synthesize heroin.
produces a “high” that is accompanied by drowsiness and a sense of well-being that generally last for three to four hours.
is usually prepared synthetically from morphine.
derived from opium or morphine, but does have the same physiological effects on the body as do opium narcotics.
appears to eliminate the addict’s desire for heroin while producing minimal side effects
cause marked changes in normal thought processes, perceptions, and moods.
the most controversial drug in this class because its long-term effects on health are still largely unknown
The chemical substance largely responsible for the hallucinogenic properties of marijuana is known as
synthesized from lysergic acid, and can cause hallucinations that can last for 12 hours.
is often synthesized in clandestine laboratories and is often smoked, ingested, sniffed
often mixed with other drugs, such as LSD, or amphetamine, and is sold as a powder
substances used to depress the functions of the central nervous system.
enters the body’s bloodstream and quickly travels to the brain, where it acts to suppress the brain’s control of thought processes and muscle coordination.
normally taken orally and create a feeling of well-being, relax the body, and produce sleep.
produce a relaxing tranquility without impairment of high-thinking faculties or inducing sleep.
substances taken to increase alertness or activity, followed by a decrease in fatigue and a loss of appetite.
injected intravenously, cause an initial “rush,” followed by an intense feeling of pleasure.
extracted from the leaves of Erythroxylin coca, causes increased alertness and vigor, accompanied by the suppression of hunger, fatigue, and boredom
cocaine mixed with baking soda and water, then heated
central nervous system depressants that are often connected with drug-facilitated sexual assault, rape, and robbery.
enhances self-awareness and decreases inhibitions, however, seizures, muscle breakdown, stroke, kidney failure, and cardiovascular system failure often accompany chronic abuse
primarily used as a veterinary animal anesthetic that in humans causes euphoria and hallucinations.
often abused by individuals who are interested in accelerating muscle growth
drugs have a high potential for abuse and have no currently accepted medical use such as heroin, marijuana, methaqualone, and LSD.
drugs have a high potential for abuse and have medical use with severe restrictions such as cocaine, PCP, and most amphetamine and barbiturate prescriptions
drugs have less potential for abuse and a currently accepted medical use such as all barbiturate prescriptions not covered under Schedule II, such as codeine and anabolic steroids.
drugs have a low potential for abuse and have a current medical use such as darvon, phenobarbital, and some tranquilizers such as diazepam (valium) and chlordiazepoxide (librium).
drugs must show low abuse potential and have medical use such as opiate drug mixtures that contain nonnarcotic medicinal ingredients.
route by which the drug is absorbed into the circulation via oral or gastric mucose or the small intestine
The study of poisons and unwanted responses to drugs and other chemicals
(2 words) The time it takes for one half of the original amount of a drug to be removed from the body
What the drug does to the body
Decreasing response to repeated drug doses
(3 words) metabolism of a drug and its passage from the liver into the circulation
(2 words) Ratio of a drug's toxic level to the level that provides therapeutic benefits
Permanent changes in genetic composition
Study of drugs' movement into, within, and out of the body
Extent of drug absorption, or how much of the drug will reach the circulation
Main organ for excretion
Place where metabolism frequently occurs
Area surrounding the eyeball
The surgical removal of the gallbladder
A condition characterized by difficulty in defecating
A chronic, inflammatory bowel disease that usually affects the small intestine or colon
The occurrence of frequent, watery bowel movements
Solid crystals that form from substances in the bile of the gallbladder
An inflammation of the stomach or intestine that produces some combination of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain
The movement of chyme from the stomach into the lower esophagus
An abbreviation for the chronic inflammation of the esophagus caused by the upward flow of gastric juice (caused by gastroesophageal reflux)
A disease characterized by inflammation of and damage to the liver
A condition in which the wall of the small and/or large intestine becomes chronically inflamed
Inflammation of the pancreas
A disease that affects the supporting structure of the teeth and the gums
A break in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or lower esophagus
An inflammatory bowel disease that usually affects the colon and the mucosal layer of the intestinal wall
Microorganisms that cause infectious disease
Pathogen that lives in blood
Bacteria that requires oxygen for survival
Bacteria that live without oxygen
Small microbes that pass through most filters
Microbes that grow on other organisms
Animal pathogen, parasites
The way microorganisms enter the body
Number of portals of entry for microorganisms
Spread of disease by contact with pathogen
Confined to one area of the body
Spread through the body
Usual amount of specific disease in a community
Excess of normal occurrences of a specific disease
Increase in normal number of cases of specific disease in a defined geographic area
Epidemic spread over several countries
Recently appearing infectious diseases in a population
Ingested or injected substances that have ability to inhibit growth or destroy pathogens
Chemical agents that treat disease
Biologic or chemical agents that create immunity
Absence or control of microorganisms
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Bacteriostatic agents used on skin
Bacteriostatic agents used on inanimate objects
Process of destroying all living organisms
Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
Organism that lives at the expense of another
Encapsulated bacteria in an inative state
Go to antacid, active ingredient in TUMS
Mucus secreting cells in intestinal lining
Prokinetic agent, increases LES pressure
Not recommended for acid reflux, dosed QID, forms viscous adhesive on ulcer crater
ADR of anti-histamine’s, dizziness, spinning room
Side effect of GERD, ADR of Imodium
Omeprazole and sodium bicarb
Brand only, PPI
Blood in stool
Initial treatment for ulcerative colitis
Weakening of bone, extra intestinal manifestation
250/500 mg capsules that are effective in entire GI tract
________ tenderness, indicates severe to fulminant UC
lifestyle modification for nocturnal symptoms of GERD
Medication that is an irritant to mucosa in GERD
use of loperamide may cause this condition
Food that decreases LES pressure
___ weeks of PPI is the choice for symptomatic relief and healing of erosive esophagitis
PPI’s are dosed 30-60 mins before which meal?
Food may relieve the pain when dealing with a ____ ulcer
When there are drug interactions with antacid use, separate antacid by ____ hours
A dangerous complication of GI ulcers
Barrier to effective treatment of H. pylori infection
Drug used for prevention of NSAID ulcers, but contraindicated in pregnancy
An independent risk factor for stress-related mucosal bleeding
used for IBS-D and hits Mu receptors
emergency use in IBS-C and CIC
IBS-C in women, OI-Constipation
classic symptom of PUD
Protective factor for PUD
Generic name for Sandostatin (inhibits gastric acid and releases gastrin)
excessive fat in the stools due to malabsorption
Malignant gastrinomas occur in 30-50% of patients with this syndrome
Generic name of Tagamet that has many drug interactions
Gives greatest symptom relief for GERD + highest healing rates
antidiarrheal that is over the counter
generic of Uceris, used to help treat ulcerative colitis
group of drugs that block histamine from binding to parietal cells and prevents those cells from secreting HCl
drug that counteracts or neutralizes acidity
drug that acts on the brain to suppress appetite; used as a therapy for obesity
drug that relieves diarrhea
drug that prevents or treats nausea and vomiting
drug that is used for alleviation or prevention of excessive intestinal gas
drug used to treat oral candidiasis (thrush)
drug that kills intestinal parasites (roundworms, tapeworms, and pinworms)
drug that decreases secretions and gastric mobility, reduce gastric spasm, and slow gastric motility
cleansing solutions that are used to remove stool before diagnostic tests (colonoscopy)
drug used to dissolve small non-calcified gallstones
drug that helps to control acid reflux
drug that relieves constipation
drug used to reduce the activity of lipases found in the intestine
hormone-like substances with a wide range of effects on the body (contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle)
drug that reduce the acidity of the stomach (usually combined with antibiotics to act against H. pylori)
Haloperidol falls into this class of drugs.
This drug is an antihypertensive drug.
This class of drug causes a patient to urinate.
Used as an antidote to morphine.
Use as a first-line drug in emergency situations to bring back blood pressure.
An antidiabetic drug that should be held before giving radiocontrast dye.
This drug is an antiseizure medication.
One of the newer antihistamine drugs that is less sedating.
A parenteral drug that is used in patients with diabetes and comes in short-acting and long-acting forms.
One of many drugs used to decrease blood lipids and cholesterol.
This drug contains antiseizure, antianxiety, and muscle relaxant actions.
This class of drugs is very toxic and used to treat cancer.
The acronym used for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.
This drug falls in the same class as dobutamine.
The class of drugs used to treat patients for claustrophobia and stimulate gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors in the brain.
The same answer as #12 Across.
Is considered an antihypertiensive drug.
Used to treat a weak heart.
Used to treat cardiac dysrhythmias.
This drug is used in cardiology as an antiplatelet.
An antihistamine drug that is commonly used for treating allergic reactions.
An antiseizure medication that has a strong animal as the beginning of its name.
This drug is a muscle relaxing agent that begins with bac–.
Used for seizures and begins with letter F.
A drug and vitamin used for treating cholesterol problems.
What is the pharmacological action of dexamethasone?
Should be used in combination with a glucocorticoid or a serotonin antagonist to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting
This drug can be adminstered PO, IM, or IV and is primarily used for nausea and vomiting related to surgery or other treatments.
Which patient would you not want to give Aprepitant: pt with seizures, diabetic, or liver failure
Which med can cause prolonged QT interval and can lead to serious dysrhythmia?
Is Aprepitant safe for children?
MOA: Lowers surface tension of the stool to allow penetration of water
What is the therapeutic use of Docusate Sodium?
For this drug, we use low dose for painful elimination of stool, and large doses for colon surgery or diagnostic testing
True or False: Administration of Magnesium Hydroxide can lead deficient levels of magnesium
OSMOTIC diuretics can cause_____________.
In addition to stool softeners/laxatives, the nurse should encourage the patient to eat a diet high in ____________.
How would you know the laxative was effective? The patient had a _____________________.
This is the MOA for what drug class: Activates opioid receptors to decrease intestinal motility and to increase the absorption of fluid and sodium in the intestine
Antidiarrheal medications are pregnancy category C. Would they contraindicated?
For Administration of Antidiarrheals: nurses should educate patient to drink something with electrolytes and no ___________.
The MOA of ____________ is activating the vomiting center to expel gastric contents and causes increase of upper Gi motility, increasing peristalsis.
Which drug is a prokinetic agent? Metoclopramide, Ondansetron, Docusate
True or False: Metoclopramide is contraindicated in GI bleed, seizures, and those at risk EPS(such as elderly and young children)
This drug is approved only for female clients who suffer from IBS/D that has lasted more than 6 months
What would you not want to give with Alosetron because it will decrease the levels and therapeutic effects?
What is the drug of choice for women who struggle daily with IBS/C?
As a nurse, what should instruct your patient to do when taking the medication, Lubiprostone to decrease nausea?
5-Amino Salicylates MOA is it decreases ________________ by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis?
Which of these is not a use for 5-aminosalicyates? nausea, IBS, Crohn's disease, ulcerative cholitis
Which of these is not a contraindication for 5-Aminosalicylates? pregnancy, sensitivity to sulfanomides, thiazide diuretics, beta blockers, and salicylates,
With a patient taking a probiotic and an antibiotic; how long should the nurse instruct her patient to take these apart?
Which drug class helps restore the normal flora in the gut?
What drug class is needed to eliminate H. pylori bacteria?
Histamine 2 recpetor antagonized that works by blocking H2 receptors to reduce gastric acid and hydrogen ions in the stomach
This Histamine receptor antagonist drug can be given PO or IV: IV is given in acute situations; Cimetidine, Verapamil, and Labetalol
True or False: Ranitidine can be taken with or without food?
A proton pump inhibitor that works by blocking basal and stimulated acid production and inhibits the enzyme that produces gastric acid
Would digoxin levels increase or decrease with omeprazole?
True or FAlse:Inform client they can have pneumonia, osteoporosis, rebound acid hypersecretion, and hypomagnesemia when taking Omeprazole
This is used for a patient suffering from acute duodenal ulcers?
This is the prototype for mucosal protectants
You would not give mucosal protectants in what patients: liver failure, diabetics, pregnancy, and kidney failure
Do not crush or chew tablets of sucralfate, you should ___________- in water.
MOA: neutralized gastric acid by producing neutral salts and inactivated pepsin
Therapeutic use of Misoprostal in relation to GI: is prevention of gastric ____________ in patients taking long term NSAIDS