Does not require cutting of the skin or tissues
How the body maintains a stable internal environment
Cutting through the skin and tissue; long recovery time
Movement of substances within the body in body fluids
Process of making a new individual; when parents produce an offspring
increase in body size; whenever an organism produces new body materials faster than old ones are worn out
Removal of wastes that body parts produce as a result of their activities
Process of obtaining oxygen; using oxygen to release energy from food substances, and removing the resultant gaseous wastes
Changing of absorbed substances into forms that are chemically different from those that entered the body fluids
Chemically and mechanically breaks down food substances into simpler forms that cells can absorb and use
Organism's ability to sense changes taking place inside or outside its body and react to these changes
Self-initiated change in an organism's position or to its traveling from one place to another
passage of substances through certain membranes , as when digestive products pass through the membrane that lines the intestine and enter body fluids
Small incisions and cuts on skin; short healing time
The opening at the end of the digestive system, where wastes are released
Vessels in the circulatory system that carry blood away from the heart
Saclike structure that stores urine until it can be releases
An artery, vein, or capillary that carries blood to and from the heart and body tissues
Smallest vessel in the circulatory system; site of nutrient and gas exchange between blood and body cells
Process that breaks large food molecules into smaller molecules that can be taken in by cells
Organ system that transports needed substances throughout the body and carries away wastes
large domed muscle that seperates chest and abdomen and plays a major role in breathing
Process of breaking down food into a form the body can use
Organ system that breaks down food into substances the body can use, and absorbs these substances
Female sex cell
System of organs that controls body activities through chemical messengers (hormones)
A protein in the body that helps control a chemical reaction, such as digestion
Tube that carries food from the mouth to the south
Organ system that removes waste from the body
Positive or negative response to a stimuli; example: pain
A sac that stores bile
Specialize organs that make substances (hormones) that control and regulate body processes
Organ that punmps blood throughout the body
Keeping conditions constant in the body
A chemical released by a gland: controls a specific body function
A hormone that is produced by a group of specialized cells in the pancreas and that lowers blood glucose
System that covers the human body, basic organ is skin in the human body
Organ in the urinary system that filters waste from the blood
Part of the digestive system where water is absorbed from the solid waste
Organ in the digestive system that produces bile and enzymes, breaks down toxins and wastes
Pair of organs in the respiratory system, where carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged
process of breaking food into smaller pieces by chewing and mashing
elongated tissues that allow for contractons and relaxationd to cause movement
chemical compounds that results from digestion od complex protein.
yellowish-brown to greenish fluid secreted by the liver and in the gallbladder; aids in fat digestion
another word for your intestine
semisolid mass of partially digested food and gastric juices that passes from the stomach to the small intestine
major portion of the large intestine
conversion of food into nutrients for the body and into waste products for relase from the body.
protein that causes chemical charges in substances in the digestive tract
part from the of alimentary canal from the pharynx to the stomach.
organ on lower suface of the liver ;stores bile
place where reabsorbtion takes place
cavity in the face in which food and water is ingested
digstive organ that secretes digestive fluids, endocrine gland that regulates blood sugar
bottom portion of large intestine: connected to the anal cavaity
fluid secreted by salivary glands
glands in the mouth that secrete fluids that aid in breaking down food
passing of nutrients into the bloodsteam
organ importantin digestive and metabolic system functions; secretes bile
coordinated, rythmic contractions of smooth muscel that forces food through the digestive tract.
another word for feces
another word for pharynx
fleshy part of the mouth that moves food during mastication
loose, watery stool
feeling sick in the stomach
cone-shaped projection hanging down from soft palate
folds on stomach ining
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugar and starches
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
the steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process
a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials
specialized ground tissue that makes up the bulk of most leaves; performs most of a plant's photosynthesis
the second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
a colored chemical compound that absorbs light, producing color
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
granum (grana) a stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis, involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate. These reactions are also called the Calvin Cycle
is the set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
a compound composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis.
Nutrient molecules passed through the wall of your digestive system into your blood
Your teeth carry out the first role of ______
___ is accomplished by enzymes
The fluid released when your mouth waters is called ___
A flap of tissue called the ___ seals off your windpipe, preventing the food from entering
The ___ is the last section of the digestive system
After food enters the ___, contractions of smooth muscles push the food towards the stomach
___ is a thick, slippery substance produced by the body
The ___ is a j-shaped muscular pouch located in the abdomen
The ___ , which is located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, is the largest organ in the body
___ is a substance that breaks up fat particles
The large intestine ends in a short tube called the ___
The ___, is a muscular opening at the end of the rectum
Bile flows from the liver into the ___
The ___ is a triangular organ that lies between the stomach and the first part of the small intestine
The pancreas produces enzymes that flow into the small intestine and help break down ____, proteins, and fats
Starches, ___, and fats
The small intestine helps break down ___
The lining of the small intestine is covered with millions of tiny finger shaped structures called ___
More professional wore for villi
The ________ system consists of bones and the ligaments that secure the bones at joints
The ________ system comprises both fixed and movable joints
The ________ system includes the skeletal muscles that move the skeleton, the face, and other structures of the body, and give form to the body. Cardiac muscle pumps blood through the heart
The ________ system consists of the four-chambered heart; arteries conducting blood to the tissues; capillaries through which nutrients, gases, and molecular material pass to and from the tissues
The ________ system is a system of vessels assisting the veins in recovering the body's tissue fluids and returning them to the heart. Lymph nodes filter lymph throughout the body
The ________ system consists of impulse-generating and impulse conducting tissue organized into a central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and a peripheral nervous system(nerves)
The ________ system consists of glands that secrete chemical agents (hormones) into the tissue fluids and blood, affecting the function of multiple areas of the body
The ________ system consists of the skin, which is provided with many glands, sensory receptors, vessels, immune cells, antibodies, and layers of cells and keratin that resist environmental factors
The ________ system consists of the upper (nose through larynx) and lower respiratory tract (trachea through the air spaces of the lungs). Most of the tract is airway; only the air spaces (alveoli)
The ________ system consists of an alimentary canal and glands. It performs the breakdown, digestion, and assimilation of food as well as excretion of the residua. Glands include the liver
Stones that are formed when you don't drink enough water; have to pass them to get them out
Parts of the kidney that filter the blood and remove waste
Releases saliva to moisten food and begin chemical digestion
Produces digestive juices called bile that breaks down fat
The way in which clean blood returns to the body
Breaks down the food into smaller substances (ex: chewing)
Produces digestive juices called bile that breaks down fat
Produces pancreatic enzymes to aid in breaking down food
Digestion is completed here once food travels from the stomach; long but narrow in diameter
The first 10-12 inches of the small intestine where nutrients for the body are absorbed and delivered to the bloodstream
One-celled microorganisms having both plant and animal characteristics. Some are harmful and some are harmless
Transmission of blood or body fluids through touching (including shaking hands), kissing, coughing, sneezing, and talking.
Single-cell organisms that grow in irregular masses that include molds, mildews, and yeasts.
Transmission of blood or body fluids through contact with an intermediate contaminated object, such as a razor, extractor, nipper, or an environmental surface.
Invasion of body tissues by disease-causing pathogens.
Nonscientific synonym for disease-producing organisms.
Any organism of microscopic to submicroscopic size.
Harmful microorganisms that enter the body and can cause disease.
Organisms that grow, feed, and shelter on or in another organism (referred to as the host) while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism.
Various poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms (bacteria and viruses).
A submicroscopic particle that infects and resides in cells of biological organisms.
Reaction due to extreme sensitivity to certain foods, chemicals, or other normally harmless substances.
A disease that is spread from one person to another person.
The presence, or the reasonably anticipated presence, of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item's surface or visible debris or residues such as dust, hair, and skin.
Condition in which the body reacts to injury, irritation, or infection.
a group of organs that excrete chemical waste
tiny, sac like structures of the lungs that are surrounded by capillaries where gas exchange takes place
a chemical that regulates body function
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
male organs that produce sperm and testerone
blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart
a flap of tissue that prevents the back flow of blood
the network of small blood vessels that allow oxygen and other substances to flow into tissues
body system that controls the body that includes the brain and spinal cord
a body system that consists of skeletal muscles and tendons
provides supports for the body and provides attachments for muscles
male and a female each have special organs for reproduction . organs in the male have different organs than female
a group of organs that take in and digest food, and eliminate solid waste
the body system consisting of the lungs and passageways that ead to the lungs
a group of glads that produce hormones and release them into the blood
System that consists of nerves, brain and spinal cord
helps movement of the body, maintaining posture, and circulating blood throughout the body
system that contains voluntary and involuntary muscles
this system starts in the mouth
the heart and blood vessels that circulate blood throughout the body
disposing of the body's waste
brings air into the body and removes carbon dioxide
system that protects major internal organs and provides overall support
system that transmits signals from the body to the brain
this is also known as the urinary system
includes bone, cartilages, ligaments
skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, cardiac muscles
Breaks down food
skin, hair, regulates temperature
esophagus, stomach, intestines
To receive and send electrical messages throughout the body.
Pumps blood through all your vessels.
Breaks down food you eat into nutrients that can be absorbed into your body.
Helps move your bones.
A frame to support and protect your body parts.
Protects underlying tissue.
Regulates body functions by send ing out chemical messengers.
Absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide.
Removes waste from the blood and regulates the body's fluids.
Returns leaked fluids to blood vessels and helps you get rid of germs that ca harm you.
Male: Produces and delivers sperm. Female: Produces eggs and nourishes , shelters the unborn baby.
Reaction due to extreme sensitivity to certain foods, chemicals, or other normally harmless substances.
Chemical germicide formulated for use on skin; registered & regulated by the FDA
Immunity that the body develops after overcoming a disease, through inoculation (such as flu vaccinations) or through exposure to natural allergens such as pollen/cat dander/ragweed.
Showing no symptoms/signs of infection.
Short, rod-shaped bacteria. They are the most common bacteria and produce diseases such as tetanus (lockjaw), typhoid fever, tuberculosis, diphtheria.
One-celled microorganisms that have both plant & animal characteristics. Some are harmful; some are harmless.
Harmless microorganisms that may perform useful functions & are safe to come in contact w/ since they do not cause disease/harm
An item that is made/constructed of a material that has no pores/openings & cannot absorb liquids
Illness resulting from conditions associated w/ employment, such as prolonged & repeated overexposure to certain products/ingredients
Bacteria capable of producing a protective coating that allows them to w/stand very harsh environments, & shed the coating when conditions become more favorable.
Capable of destroying bacteria
The division of bacteria cells into 2 new cells called daughter cells
Colonies of bacteria that adhere together & adhere to environmental surfaces
Disease-causing microorganisms carried in the body by blood/body fluids, such as hepatitis & HIV
chelating detergents; they break down stubborn films & remove the residue of pedicure products (scrubs/salts/masks)
athlete's foot; medical term for fungal infections of the feet; red, itchy rash of the skin on the bottom of the feet &/or in between the toes, usually found between the 4th & 5th toe.
Various poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms (bacteria and viruses)
Disinfectants that kill the bacteria that causes tuberculosis
A disease caused by bacteria that are transmitted through coughing/sneezing
Capable of destroying viruses
A parasitic submicroscopic particle that infects & resides in cells of biological organisms
SP; precautions such as wearing personal protective equipment to prevent skin & mucous membranes where contact w/ a client's blood, body fluids, secretions (except sweat), excretions, non-intact skin, & mucous membranes is likely. Workers must assume that all blood & body fluids are potential sources of infection, regardless of the perceived risk.
Pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like a bunch of grapes. They cause abscesses, pustules, and boils.
A mechanical process (scrubbing) using soap & water/detergent & water to remove all visible dirt, debris, & many disease-causing germs. Removes invisible debris that interfere w/ disinfection. Cosmetologists are required to do before disinfecting
Round-shaped bacteria that appear singly (alone) or in groups. The 3 types are staphylococci, streptococci, & diplococci
communicable disease; disease that is spread from 1 person to another person. Some of the more contagious diseases are the common cold, ringworm, conjunctivitis (pinkeye), viral infections, &natural nail/toe & foot infections
The presence/reasonably anticipated presence, of blood/other potentially infectious materials on an item's surface/visible debris or residues (dust/hair/skin)
The removal of blood & all other potentially infectious materials on an item's surface, and the removal of visible debris/residue (dust, hair, & skin)
Determination of the nature of a disease from its symptoms &/or diagnostic tests. Federal regulations prohibit salon professionals from performing a diagnosis
Spherical bacteria that grow in pairs & cause diseases such as pneumonia
Transmission of blood/body fluids through touching (including shaking hands), kissing, coughing, sneezing, & talking
An abnormal condition of all/part of the body/its systems/organs, which makes the body incapable of carrying on normal function