- Variable that describes data using words or numerals as labels
- Categorical
- Variable that describes data using numbers as numerical values
- quantitative
- The possible values of the variable and the relative frequency of each value
- distribution
- In a two-way table, the distribution of either variable alone
- marginal
- Distribution of a variable when considering only a smaller group of individuals
- conditional
- Table that lists the categories of a variable and gives the proportion of observations for each category
- relative frequency
- Shows a bar representing the count of each category in a categorical variable
- barchart
- Shows how a "whole" divides into categories by showing a wedge of a circle whose area corresponds to the proportion in each category
- piechart
- Shows bars divided proportionally into segments corresponding to the percentage in each group
- segmentedbarchart
- When a distribution is not symmetric and one tail stretches out farther than the other
- skewed
- Distribution with two modes
- bimodal
- Uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of values in a quantitative variable, where each bar represents the number of values falling in an interval
- histogram
- A numerical summary of how tightly the values are clustered around the "center"
- spread
- A distribution roughly flat in shape
- uniform
- Distributions with more than two modes
- multimodal
- Shape where the two halves on either side of the center look approximately like mirror images of each other
- symmetric
- Shape where the longer tail stretches to the right
- skewedright
- Type of display that shows quantitative data values in a way that shows the shape of the distribution in addition to individual data values
- stemplot
- Shape where the longer tail stretches to the left
- skewedleft
- Having one mode
- unimodal
- Graphs a dot for each case against a single axis
- dotplot
- Reveals single vs. multiple modes and symmetric vs. skewness
- curve
- a value that summarizes the entire distribution with a single number, a "typical" value
- center
- Tells how many standard deviations a value is from the mean
- zscore
- Numerical attribute of a population
- parameter
- In a Normal Model, about 68% of the values fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean, about 95% within 2 standard deviations, and about 99.7% within 3 standard deviations
- empirical rule
- The value found by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation
- standardized score
- Type of Normal model with mean 0 and standard deviation 1
- standard normal
- Numerical attribute of a set of data
- statistic
- The number that falls above a given % of the data
- percentile
- Displays the 5-number summary as a central box with the whiskers that extend to the non-outlying data values
- boxplot
- Minimum, 1st quartile, Median, 3rd quartile, Maximum
- fivenumbersummary
- Found by summing all the data values and dividing by the count
- mean
- The difference between the first and third quartiles
- interquartilerange
- The square root of the variance
- standarddeviation
- The value with a quarter of the data below it
- firstquartile
- Value more than 1.5 times the IQR below Q1 or above Q3
- outlier
- Difference between the maximum and minimum value
- range
- The value with a quarter of the data above it
- thirdquartile
- The middle value of a distribution with half the data above and half below it
- median

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