Holds cells DNA
Large membrane sacs that store materials like water, salts, proteins and sugars
Small organelles filled with enzymes that break down lipids, sugars, and proteins into smaller molecules
Small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in all cells
Internal membrane system (rough and smooth)
Modifies, sorts, and package proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or release outside of the cell
Capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis
Powerhouse plants of the cell; convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
An outer layer of the cell that protects and regulates what goes in and out of the cell
A layer within the cell membrane made up of lipids
An organelle found in plants and algae that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds (sugars) from carbon dioxide and water
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells bacteria fungi and some protists; protects the cell and helps maintain its shape
A structure found in animal cells from which microtubules originate and that is important during cell division (contains two centrioles)
The central vacuole is a cellular organelle found in plant cells. It is often the largest organelle in the cell. It is surrounded by a membrane and functions to hold materials and wastes.
A narrow thread of cytoplasm that passes through the cell walls of adjacent plant cells that allows connections between them.
A digestive organelle in eukaryotic cells; contains hydrolytic enzymes that digest engulfed food or damaged organelles
The contents of a eukaryotic cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; consists of a semi-fluid medium and organelles; can also refer to the interior of a prokaryotic cell
A cell structure consisting of RNA and protein organized into two subunits and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; in the eukaryotic cells the ribosomal subunits are constructed in the molecules
organelle composed of a double membrane that acts as the storehouse for most of a cell's DNA
A bean-shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA
The thickest of the three main kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a hollow tube made of globular proteins called tubulins; found in cilia and flagella
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes attached that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins
The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that lacks ribosomes centrioles/ A small cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
A small cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
A thin flexible layer around the cells of all living things; it's job is to separate the cytoplasm from the cell's surroundings
A complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
A specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own membrane. Little organs within the cell.
Shaped like a bean, this cell organelle helps take food and manufacture energy from it. It is known as the powerhouse of the cell. The energy it makes is ATP.
An elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll. This is the site of photosynthesis.
The cell's "skeleton" of microtubules which gives it shape, strength, and the capacity for directed movement
The control center of the cell, it contains the hereditary information and carries the instructions for making proteins.
The organelles where proteins are made from the translation of RNA strands.
Jelly-like substance that makes up the matrix of the cell body.
a double-layered membrane that surrounds the cell. Also called the plasma membrane, it regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
known as the garbage men, contains digestive enzymes to breakdown worn out cell parts or destroy foreign invaders
modifying, sorting and packaging of proteins for secretion.
membrane system of folded sacs and interconnected channels that serves as a site for protein and lipid synthesis
found in fungi, plants, and bacteria. It surrounds the cell membrane and aids in support and structure of the cell.
They can be used to contain cellular waste, isolate materials that may be harmful to the cell, or hold water for plants. They are very versatile in their function
A membrane bound structure that is the basic unit of life
The lipid bilayr that forms the outer boundary of the cell
A rigid structure that surrounds the cells of plants and most bacteria
A jelly-like substance that hold the cell organelles together
Known as the "skeleton" of the cell; network of long protein strands in the cytosol that helps support the cell
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
Powerhouse of the cell; produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar (cellular respiration)
An organelle containing digestive enzymes
The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus
The organelle that contains the DNA and controls the processes of the cell
An organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins
Stores water and nutrients for the cell; very large in plant cells
A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell
An internal membrane system in which components of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed
whip-like tails found in one-celled organisms to aid movement
One of several bodies with a specialized function that is suspended in the cytosol of the cell; small organs
A double membrane that surrounds the nucleus in the cell
Liquid part of a cell inside the cell membrane
Membrane surrounded component of a eukaryotic cell with a specialized function
Stiff structure outside the cell membrane that protects a cell from attack by viruses and other harmful organisms
A large macromolecule that does not dissolve in water
Series of chemical reactions that convert light energy, water, and carbon dioxide into the food energy molecule glucose and give off oxygen
Process by which glucose is broken down into smaller molecules
Process during which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane
The movement of substances through a cell membrane using the cell's energy
Macromolecules that form when long chains of molecules called nucleotides join together.
When joining many small molecules together
One sugar molecule, two sugar molecules, or a long chain of sugar molecules
Network of threadlike proteins joined together that gives a cell it's shape and helps it move
Long chains of amino acid molecules
All living things are made of one or more cells, the cell is the smallest unit of life, and all new cells come from preexisting cells
Reaction that eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells can use to obtain energy from food when oxygen levels are low
Process during which a cell's vesicles release their contents outside the cell
Flexible covering that protects the inside of a cell from the environment outside the cell
Movement of substance through a cell membrane without using the cell's energy
Membrane-bound organelle that uses light energy and males glucose from water and carbon dioxide in the process of photosynthesis
An organism's ability to maintain steady internal conditions when outside conditions change
The smallest unit of life
Living things that are made of only one cell
Movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Series of chemical reactions that convert the energy in food molecules into a usable form of energy called ATP
Things that have all the characteristics of life
Living things that are made from two or more cells
Part of a eukaryotic cell that directs cell activity and contains genetic info stored in DNA
The jelly-like fluid that is consistently flowing inside a cell.
An organelle that packags and distributes proteins: it modifies and sends proteins to the correct place within the cell.
An organelle that store water and other excess materials not needed by th cell.
An organelle that makes energy for the cell by breaking down sugars.
An organelle that makes proteins.
A rigid structure that gives support and shape to a cell. Only in plant cells.
A protective layer that overs the cell's surface. It controls the movement of particles in and out of the cell.
An organlls that is responsible for destroying worn or damaged organelles.
An organelle only found in plant and algae cels where photosynthesis takes place (contains cchlorophll).
An organelle made up of folded membranes whose functions include making proteins, lipids, and proccessing other materials.
A web of proteins in the cytoplasm that keeps a cell's mebrane from collasping.
One of the structures in the nucleus that is made up of DNA and protein.
An organelle that contians genetic material.
Inside of the nucleuos where ribosomes are made.
Controls the movement of praticles in and out of the nucleus
A flexible boundary that controls the movemens of substamces into and out of the cell.
A fluid or air-filled cavity or sac.
The relaxed form of DNA in the cell's nucleus.
Projections that aid in locomotion and feding.
The ageuous component of the cytoplasm of a cell, various organelles and particles are suspended.
the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell. The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others.
A small body located near the nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating tubules. The centrosomes is where microtubules are made. During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell. The centriole is the dense center of the centrosome.
the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.
a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. It produces the membranes that surround the lysosomes. The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.
round organelles surrounded by a membrane and containing digestive enzymes. This is where the digestion of cell nutrients takes place.
spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The inner membrane is infolded many times, forming a series of projections (called cristae). The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell.
the membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced. Some cells have more than one nucleolus.
spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane.
small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.
(rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ER transports materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane).
fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell. The vacuole fills with food being digested and waste material that is on its way out of the cell.
Cells have genetic material that is not contained in the nucleus
Cells that contain true nucleus
Portion of the cell outside the nucleus
Where the proteins are assembled on
Site where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled .
Where the assembly of ribosomes begin
Organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use .
Helps support the cell
Located near the nucleus and help organize cell division
Regulate what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support
Double layered sheet composition
Provide support and protection for the cell
A protein that allows the transport of specific substances across a cell membrane.
Serve as the “fingerprints” of the cell.
Modifies , sort, and package proteins
Small organelles filled with enzymes
Stores things , and cells contain places for storage as well
A large membrane-enclosed structure that contains genetic material in the form of DNA and controls many of the cell's activities
Break down and recycle macromolecules
Mains cell shape; moves cell parts; helps cells move
Organize cell division
Assembles proteins and lipids
Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and lipids for storage or transport out of the cell
Convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in food
Convert chemical energy in food to usable compounds
Shapes, supports, and protects the cell
Regulates materials entering and leaving cell; protects and supports cell
A double-layered sheet that gives cell membranes a flexible structure that forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings
Means "little organs"
Cells that enclose their DNA in nuclei
Cells that do NOT enclose DNA in nuclei
Basic units of life
1. All living things are made up of cells 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things 3. New cells are produced from existing cells
Means that some substrates can pass across them and others cannot
located near the nucleus to help organize cell division
portion outside the nucleus but within the cell membrane
organelles that capture energy from sunlight and coverts to chemical energy
saclike structure which stores carbohydrates, water, salts and proteins
large membrane-enclosed structure that contains cell's genetic material or DNA
small dense region within most nuclei where the assembly of proteins begin
granular material consisting of DNA bound to protein found in the nucleus
organelles that convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for cell use
thin flexible barriers surrounding cells
strong supporting layer around the cell membrane
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts and packages protein from the endocplasmic reticulum
small organelles filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm
collection of enzymes that perform specialized tasks, including synthesis of membrane lipids and the detoxification of drugs