assumes that ethical behavior is true in nature and universal
Foundational ethical perspective
- assumes that ethical decisions are unique to any given situation and are not universal in nature
Situational ethical perspective
assumes that ethical behavior is based on outcome as opposed to intentions
Utilitarian ethical perspective
assumes that ethical behavior is based on a certain level of dignity, justice, and fairness for all
Justice based ethical perspective
normative principles that concern what is just or right regarding the allocation of goods in the organization
Distributive justice
reflects making decisions and implementing those decisions based on fair and sound principles
Procedural justice
- assumes that the sole responsibility of an organization is to those people who own the instruments of production
Stakeholder theory
- a message that sends information about a message
Metamessage
the use of touch when communicating
Haptics
the use of eye behavior when communicating
Occulesics
how people consciously and unconsciously organize their space
Territoriality
an important aspect of nonverbal behavior that can have organizational ethical implications
Clothing
the use of time when communicating
Chronemics
and ethical practice that matches the organizations formal and informal practices to the needs of its members
Alignment
an ethical practice that emphasizes open channels of communication
Dialogic communication
an ethical practice of valuing feedback and recognizing contributors of the organizational members
Participation
an ethical perspective that assumes every practice the organization engages in should be up front and open
Transparent structure
an ethical practice of going above and beyond the minimal standards set by the industry and government regulations
Accountability
an ethical practice in which the organization values employee dissent, listens to employee dissent, and admits when the organization has made a mistake
Courage
a model of ethical decision making that reflects the impact that various dimensions of our lives exert on our ethical decision making and resulting behavior
Ethical wheel
the way employees go about voicing disagreement or dissatisfaction about organizational issues
Organizational dissent
expressing dissatisfaction to people who can directly alleviate the problem
Articulated dissent
expressing dissatisfaction to people who cannot alleviate the problem but will lend an ear as we vent our displeasure
Displaced dissent
expressing dissatisfaction in an aggressive way designed to antagonize another person or persons
Latent dissent
a positive strategy of organizational dissent that is based on fact followed by some sort of evidence, such as figures and consensus
Direct appeal
a positive strategy of organizational dissent that involves bringing up an issue consistently over a period of time
Repetition
an upward strategy of organizational dissent that centers around offering solutions along with the presentation of the problem
Solution presentation
a negative strategy of organizational dissent in which an employee goes above his or her immediate supervisor to complain about an issue
Circumvention
a negative strategy of the organizational dissent in which a person threatens to quit his or her job unless the problem is resolved
Threating resignation
revealing questionable organizational practice to an outside audience that can bring about justice or increase awareness in affected public
Whistleblowing
unsubstantiated messages presented as verified fact
Rumors
purposely giving less information than is needed for complete understanding
Strategic ambiguity
a test developed by Socrates to assess whether information o knowledge is valuable and worth sharing with others
Three filters test
part of the three filter test that assesses the absolute positiveness of information or knowledge
Filter of truth
part of the three filter test that assesses the absolute utility of the information or knowledge
Filter of usefulness