Battle of Hastings
a fleet of warships
A widespread disease also called the Black Death
The king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor
English poet and dramatist
The period of European history
Queen of England from 1558 to 1603
reformers who protested some practices of the catholic church
the literature of ancient Greece and Rome
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution
Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe
A meeting held to discuss and reform practices of the Catholic Church
A widespread disease
Florentine sculptor and painter and architect
powerful banking family who ruled Florence in the 1400s
German monk, questioned the Roman Catholic Church
political system based on bonds of loyalty between lords and vassals
Was once of hot spots of Renaissance culture in the 1400s
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people
Italian explorer who wrote about his travels to Central Asia and China
A large estate
Noble who owned the manor
renaissance artist, inventor and scientist who created Mona Lisa
caused England to break away from the Catholic Church- Anglican Religion
A pardon given by the Roman Catholic Church
Man who created the printing press and changed the production and reading of books
An economic and Political system that was developed in the middle ages
Lowest rank of people on a manor also known as a peasant
Being expelled or kicked out of the church
The Bubonic Plague
Leader of the Roman Catholic Church
An estate including peasants and lords
lord or son of a lord
medieval institution of knighthood where they learned bravery, courtesy, honesty, and manners
symbolic bade a knight wears to show what family he is from
Religious wars between Christian and Muslim fighting over the holy land
A tower moved up against the walls of a castle so attackers could get in
A machine that projects (Catapults) large stone or other objects
A piece of land given to you by the king and in return you gave people to fight at war
Under lord or feudal tenant
A period of time when there was a lot of starvation, death, and the plague (black death)
a knight in training
A defensive fort where the King or a lord lives
a document that says the king is not above the law and ensures rights for the people
A young boy who acts as a servant for a knight
A German tribe who settled in the land we know know as France
A journey to a sacred shrin.
A man belonging to a religious order, living in a monastery
agricultural workers that belong to the manor
self-sufficient farming estates
dutifulness in religion
the area of Palestine held spiritually important to Christians, Muslims, and Jews
head of the Roman Catholic Church
series of four holy wars to drive the Muslims out of Palestine
a trial held by the Catholic Church to get rid of heretics
belief that contradicted the teachings of the Church
one of the church's ceremonies in which you obtain grace from God
the outbreak of the Bubonic Plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid 14th century
French peasant girl whose vision and work for French fortunes led to victory
a grant of land in return for a pledge to provide military service
covering of iron worn by knights
chuirch official who oversaw the work of priest
a high official of the catholic church appointed by pope
where the lord and his knights lived
people of the middle ages believed it represented god's rules and teachings
qualities of a good knight, bravery,respect for women
an official of the church such as priest, bishop
expeditions sent by the pope to capture the holy land
a period of several hundred years during the dark middle ages
large piece of land owned by a lord
the act of removing a persons membership from church
arrangement between lord, vassal,, and serf for ownership of land
land given for military service
holding beliefs that the church felt were wrong
court to punish heretics
clowns before a lord to make them laugh
contest between knights on horseback
person who rules a country during middle ages
man of honor in the military
well to noble who owns an estate
large piece of land owned by a lord
fall of the roman empire in 476 and ended with modern period 1400
same as medieval period
singers and musicians who entertained the lords
deep, wide, water-filled ditch surrounding a castle
building where monks lived
man who gives up property to serve god
class of rich people, nobles or lords
poor people who worked on manors
head of the roman catholic church
clergyman of the christian church
very poor people who worked for lords
contest or joust beetween two knights or two groups of knights
wandering minstrels who wrote poems about the love of a beautiful lady of noble birth
noble who was given land by the lord in return for military service
who wanted full reformation of the church
_________ believed in the ability of human beings to reason and improve themselves
who becomes queen in 1553
witch group believed that the Church and State should be separated
what did the Anabaptists believed that adults could only hae done to them
who saw Lutheran disrupting the Holy Roman Empire
Renaissance movement North focused on reforming the ________ Church
who was a monk and a professor in Germany
how many formal statements attaching the "pardon-merchants"
who thinks Luther is "some drunk German who will amend his ways when he sobers up"
what comes after the Fall of the Roman Empire
what does Renaissance mean
who thinks people are selfish, fickle, and corrupt
_________ were arranged
what means the focus on human potential and achievements
_____ are cheaper
who created the supreme printer
who was one of the greatest painters of all time
He was a painter, sculpture, architect
who reinvented the movable type and printing press
During the 1500's, there was a ______________ in response to the Roman Catholic church
He nailed his 95 thesis on the Wittenberg door
Swiss Reformation leader
City in Germany where the Protestant Reformation originated
Pardons from the Church for certain sins in exchange for money
A former nun who became the wife of Martin Luther in 1525
One who holds beliefs or opinions contrary to the established doctrines of his religion
Pope who excommunicated Martin Luther in 1520
Calvin's doctrine that the salvation or damnation of men had been determined by God since the beginning of time
French Reformation leader
Many of the officials in the Roman Catholic church were __________
Who is the Catholic clergyman who is attributed to saying "As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs."
Luther's Hymn _ ________ ______ is popularly known as the "battle hymn of the Reformation."
Luther and the other reformers became the first to skillfully use the power of the _____ _______ to give their ideas a wide audience.
In 1521, Martin Luther was summoned before the ____ __ ____ and excommunicated.
which language did Martin Luther translate the New Testament
Martin Luther promised to become a monk when he feared for his like while caught in a terrible ______
an early English reformer/translator who translated the bible in 1382
The 5 _________ are 5 Latin phrases that emerged from the reformation
the latin phrase for "scripture alone" is Sola ______
an empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire
was the capital city of the Roman Empire
was one of Byzantine Empire
the period of European history from the fall of the Roman Empire in the West
also known as Charles the Great
the dominant social system in medieval Europe
an appellation for a person or deity who has authority
a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch
an agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate.
a unit of land originally a feudal lordship consisting of a lord's demesne and lands rented to tenants.
a unit of land, originally a feudal lordship, consisting of a lord's demesne and lands rented to tenants.
the faith, practice, and church order of the Roman Catholic Church.
the bishop of Rome as head of the Roman Catholic Church.
a medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.
is one of the towering figures in Western philosophy and theology
a charter of liberties to which the English barons forced King John to give his assent in June 1215
the male head of a family or tribe
a member of the branch of the Goths who invaded the Roman Empire between the 3rd and 5th centuries
a medieval association of craftsmen or merchants, often having considerable power.
a poor farmer of low social status
The revival of art and literature under the influence of classical models in the 14th-16th centuries (also known as the rebirth)
art technique used for the first time in the renaissance, depth, life like
Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet; full name Michelangelo Buonarroti. A leading figure of the High Renaissance
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe, praise of folly, criticized fasting, Churchs interpretation of the bible
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616).
A grant by the pope of remission of the temporal punishment in purgatory still due for sins after absolution. The unrestricted sale of indulgences by pardoners was a widespread abuse during the later Middle Ages
Written by Martin Luther in 1517 and widely regarded as the primary catalysts for the Protestant Reformation
Son of Henry VII and King of England from 1509 to 1547; his divorce from Catherine of Aragon resulted in his break with the Catholic Church in 1534 and his excommunication 1538, leading to the start of the Reformation in England (1491-1547)- crazy, henry left church and created anglican church
A council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 to examine and condemn the teachings of Martin Luther- acted to abolish the selling of indulgences, formed jesuits (society of jesus, started by Ignatius Layola).
theologians, churchmen, and statesmen whose careers, works, and actions brought about the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century.
A Spanish knight from a Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and was its first Superior General
predicted weather, included calendars maps medical advice.
The early period when Italy was the center of the Renaissance. started ancient world to explore acheivements, emphasis on power of human reason, humanists and humanism, desidius erasmus
Italian painter, scientist, and engineer. His paintings include The Last Supper (1498) and the Mona Lisa (1504-05). engineer, architect, scientists, inventor, artist.
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Irish poet who wrote nostalgic and patriotic verse (1779-1852). published utopia, criticized gov't, start of communism, was canonized as a saint for saying that henry wasn't the head of church because the pope is the head of the church.
German theologian who led the Reformation; believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds (1483-1546)
The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes, on September 25, 1555, at the imperial city of Augsburg
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
a religious order in the Catholic Church, known for their open-mindedness and high regard for education, patholocism, related a lot to humanists, they believed in education and started colleges, very low life standards and maintenance.
period of time where art and literature became more popular
began reformation and made the ninety- five theses
a movement which caused thousands of Roman Catholics to become Protestants
people who protested against certain church practices
to reduce or eliminate the punishment for sin
officialy kicked out of the church
goes against church teachings
summarized the religious teachings of Martin Luther
Holy Roman Emporer, he declared war on Lutheran Kings
Charles let each prince decide if he wanted Lutheran Princes
made reforms in Switzerland. ended Catholic Mass, Confessions, and Indulgences
Disagreed with Luther's contention that an individual could work toward salvation through faith in God.
Broke away from Catholic Church because he wanted a divorce and couldn't get one
respect for an individuals right to worship in his own way
period of reform that strengthened the Catholic Church
an attitude that encouraged hard work and careful managment of money and materials, contributed to the growth of buisness and industry in Europe.
a feeling of pride in ones country
kidnapped the pope after the pope ordered the clergy not to pay taxes
69 years were popes remained under the control of French Kings
period of “rebirth” following Europe’s Middle Ages
a reform movement against the Roman Catholic Church
German printer, developed a printing press (the Bible was then available to many more people)
leader of the Catholic Church
German priest who started the Reformation by nailing a list of complaints to a Catholic Church door
those who protested against the Roman Catholic Church
French Christian reformer who taught predestination and encouraged living good lives
effort to stop the spread of Protestantism and to reform the Catholic Church from within, a.k.a. the Counter-Reformation
religious order created to serve the pope and the church
the language spoken by the common people of the area
The Renaissance witnessed a rebirth of ____________ (Greek and Roman) ideals
The Italian Renaissance began in ____________
During the High Renaissance, the ___________ (in charge of the Catholic church) commissioned a lot of art
The ____________ Family controlled Florence and commissioned art to make it beautiful
The Patriarch of the Medici's was named...
Who discovered Linear Perspective and designed the biggest church in Florence?
A person who is an expert in multiple fields is called a...
Boticelli's most famous work is titled...
Leonardo da Vinci was very ___________ with his painting
One of the most famous paintings in the world
Michelangelo was ___________ when he was declared the best sculptor in Italy
Michelangelo was commissioned by the pope to paint...
The Protestant Reformation was started by...
The Reformation caused art to move away from the _________
__________________ allowed artists to create more realistic works of art
_________________ was a German artist who thought very highly of himself
Durer was inspired by...
You can compare Durer's personality to our modern day ____________