Clause in the Fifth Amendment limiting the power of the national government
Freedoms for individuals such as speech, assembly, religion, property, life, fair trial
Clause in the Fourteenth Amendment that forbids any state to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
a doctrine written into the Constitution that protects American citizens from their states’ enacting of laws that could infringe upon their rights
A clause in the First Amendment of the United States Constitution that prohibits the government from establishing an official religion, or taking actions that favor one religion over another, or over or a non-religion.
Clause in the Fifth Amendment that reserves the right of American citizens to accept any religious belief and engage in religious rituals.
Interpretation of the First Amendment that holds that the government cannot interfere with speech unless the speech presents a clear and present danger that it will lead to evil or illegal acts.
government action that prohibits speech or other expression before the speech happens
a civil wrong (tort) and can be the basis for a lawsuit
a constitutional test fashioned by the Supreme Court of the United States.
a landmark civil rights and labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, and later sexual orientation
racial, ethnic, or other segregation resulting from societal differences between groups, as socioeconomic or political disparity, without institutionalized legislation intended to segregate.
refers to intentional actions by the state to enforce racial segregation.
14th amendment clause stating that no state may deprive a person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law
granted citizenship and equal civil and legal rights to African Americans and slaves who had been emancipated after the American Civil War, including them under the umbrella phrase “all persons born or naturalized in the United States.”
guaranteed that the right to vote could not be denied based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
the practice or policy of favoring individuals belonging to groups known to have been discriminated against previously.
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