Type
Crossword
Description

A set of chemical reactions in a cell that occurs when a molecule attaches to a receptor on the cell membrane Signaltransductionpathway
A system of stimuli and response correlated to population density Quorum Sensing
A form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells Paracrine
A release of hormones that act on distant target cells in the body Endocrine
Similar to paracrine signaling but there is a special structure called the synapse between the cell originating and the cell receiving the signal Synaptic
A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs Hormone
When the target cell detects a signal, usually in the form of a small, water-soluble molecule, via binding to receptor protein Reception
The process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector Transduction
Any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus Response
Usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein Ligand
Act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior GProtein
Constitute a large protein family of receptors, that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses Gproteincoupledreceptor
Guanine Triphosphate GTP
Guanine Diphosphate GDP
Refers to the reversible transition of a molecule into a nearly identical chemical or physical state Activated
High-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors RTKs
A phosphate group is added Phosphorylation
They pass the message to the next signaling component in the chain without otherwise participating Relay Protein
A group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger Ligandgatedionchannel
Kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them Protein Kinase
A phosphate group is taken away Dephosphorylation
A sequence of events where one enzyme phosphorylates another, causing a chain reaction leading to the phosphorylation of thousands of proteins Phosphorylation cascade
An enzyme that removes a phosphate group from the phosphorylated amino acid residue of its substrate protein Protein Phosphatases
A molecule that relays messages in a cell from a receptor on a cell membrane to the final destination where an action within the cell is to take place second messengers
A secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells IP3
A glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages DAG
A mechanism leading to multiple copies of a chromosomal region within a chromosome arm Amplification
Interact and/or bind with multiple members of a signaling pathway, tethering them into complexes Scaffolding Proteins
A process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms Apoptosis
Protrusion of the plasma membrane of a cell Blebbing

Cellular Communication Vocabulary Crossword Match the word to the definition.

Type
Crossword
Description

Strengthening of stimulus energy during transduction. Amplification
Convert (a substance, molecule, etc.) into a reactive form. Activated
The bulging out of a part of a cell below the plasma membrane or expansion of air-filled tissue, as occurs in the lungs in bullous emphysema. Blebbing
Process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Apoptosis
A common biochemical process in which a phosphate group is removed from an organic compound through hydrolysis. Dephosphorylation
Occurs when endocrine cells release hormones that act on distant target cells in the body. Endocrine signaling
Monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period. GDP
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior. G Protein
Seven-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors, that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses. G Protein Coupled Receptor
Generated by one of the enzymes in the citric acid cycle. GTP
A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs. Hormone
Substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. Ligand
Ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger, such as a neurotransmitter. Ligand-gated ion channel
Form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior or differentiation of those cells. Paracrine signaling
The transferring of phosphoryl group from a donor to the recipient molecule. Phosphorylation
Sequence of events where one enzyme phosphorylates another, causing a chain reaction leading to the phosphorylation of thousands of proteins. Phosphorylation Cascade
Kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation). Protein Kinase
An enzyme that removes a phosphate group from the phosphorylated amino acid residue of its substrate protein. Protein Phosphatases
System of stimuli and response correlated to population density. Quorum sensing
Target cell's detection of a signal via binding of a signaling molecule, or ligand. Reception
Any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus. Reponse
The high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
Crucial regulators of many key signaling pathways. Scaffolding Proteins
Similar to paracrine signaling but there is a special structure called the synapse between the cell originating and the cell receiving the signal. Synaptic signaling
A set of chemical reactions in a cell that occurs when a molecule, such as a hormone, attaches to a receptor on the cell membrane. Signal Transduction Pathway
Molecules that relay signals received at receptors on the cell surface — such as the arrival of protein hormones, growth factors, etc. — to target molecules in the cytosol and/or nucleus. Second messengers
Process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. Transduction
Can control different processes in the cell including the cell cycle. Relay Protein
Messenger of neurologic information from one cell to another. Neurotransmitter

Hormones and Endocrine System Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

molecule secreted into the extracellular fluid hormone
, chemical signaling by hormones is the function of the endocrine system
major communication and control system nervous system
, ductless organs with endocrine cells endocrine glands
secreted molecules that act over short distances to reach their target cells by diffusion local regulators
targets lie near secreting cell paracrine
secreted molecules act on the secreting cell itself autocrine
secreted by neurons nerotransmitters
specialized neurons secrete molecules that diffuse from nerve cell endings neurohormones
chemicals released into external environment pheromones
series of changes in cellular proteins that converts the signal into a response signal transduction
released in a stressful situation epinephrine
polypeptide local regulator in immune responses cytokines
stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation growth factors
nitrogen and double-bonded oxygen nitric oxide
modified fatty acids prostaglandins
gland located behind the stomach pancreas
response reduces the initial stimulus negative feedback
triggers uptake of glucose from the blood insulin
promotes release of glucose into the blood glucagon
scattered throughout the pancreas islets of Langerhans
caused by deficiency of insulin diabetes mellitus
released by the prothoracic glands ecdysone

Photosynthesis Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugar and starches photosynthesis
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer autotroph
the steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process light reactions
a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria chlorophyll
an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials heterotroph
specialized ground tissue that makes up the bulk of most leaves; performs most of a plant's photosynthesis mesophyll
the second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate. Calvin Cycle
a colored chemical compound that absorbs light, producing color pigment
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy. thylakoid
granum (grana) a stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast granum
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water. stroma
large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP ATP synthase
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis, involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate. These reactions are also called the Calvin Cycle dark reactions
is the set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. Cellular respiration
a compound composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis. ATP

Gene Regulation Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

A DNA-binding transcription metabolite that positively modulates an allosteric Enzyme or regulates one or more genes by increasing the rate of transcription. Activators
A protein required for recognition by rNA polymerases of specific stimulatory sequences in eukaryotic genes. TranscriptionFactors
The reduction of a chemical Compound to one less complex, as by splitting off one or more groups. degradation time
Gene elimination from differentiating cells in some protozoans, insects, and crustaceans. gene loss
An increase in the frequency of a gene or chromosomal region, as a result of replicating a DNA segment by in vivo or in vitro process, such as by gene duplication or polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Amplification
Genetic elements important in the function of a specific promoter. enhancers
A group of synthetic hormones steriods
The process by which introns are removed from hnRNA to produce mature messenger RNA that contains only exons. splicing
A permanent, heritable change in the nucleotide sequence in a gene or a chromosome. mutations
A biochemical process involving addition of methyl groups to DNA, silencing a gene or cluster of genes. methylation
DNA segments that are mobile that are capable of replicating and inserting copies of DNA at random sites in the same or a different chromosome. transponsons
The addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein or other organic molecule. Phosphorylation
Formation of an acetyl derivative. Acetylation
A molecule consisting of two subunits that fit together and work as one to build proteins according to the genetic sequence held within the messenger RNA. Ribosome Barriers

Circulatory System Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

place where substances are exchanged between the blood and body cells capillaries
the liquid part of blood Plasma
a flap of tissue that prevents blood from flowing backward valve
bloodvessles that carry blood back to the heart veins
take up oxyhgen in the blood and deliver it to cells elsewhere in the body redbloodcells
the body's disease fighters whitebloodcells
consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood cardiovascular system
(singular) lower chambers of the heart ventricle
(singular) upper chambers of the heart atrium
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration diffusion
largest artery in the body aorta
a force exerted by blood against the walls of blood vessels blood pressure
the alternating expansion and relaxation of the artery walls pulse
a group of heart cells that sends out signals that make the heart muscle contract pacemaker
hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body heart
blood vessles that carry blood away from the heart arteries
iron-containing protein that binds chemically to oxygen molecules hemoglobin

Biomolecules Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

What biomolecule carries genetic information NucleicAcids
What biomolecule is used for quick energy Carbohydrates
What biomolecule stores long-term energy Lipids
What biomolecule makes muscle Proteins
Sugars, starches, and cellulose Carbohydrates
Fats, oils, wax, cholesterol, cell membrane, and testoserone Lipids
DNA and RNA nucleicacids
Cartilage, meats, nuts, beans, feathers, skin, and hair Proteins
A carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together Polysaccharide
Its simple sugars and its the most basic units of carbohydrates Monosaccharides
It consists of two monosaccharide molecules joined together Disaccharides
Which fatty acid can have one or more bonds unsaturated
Which fatty acid has only single bonds Saturated
Formed from glycerol and three fatty acid groups Triglyceride
What is a lipid that contains a phosphate group in its molecule Phospholipid
What is a large number of amino-acids that are bonded together in a chain Polypeptides
Is a amino acid a polymer or a monomer Monomer
It forms the basic structural unit (base) of nucleic acids Nucleotides
Is DNA or RNA a monomer or polymer polymer
Only biomolecule with nitrogen Proteins

DNA Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

A compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA. Nucleotide
A pair of parallel helices intertwined aboucomt a mon axis,especially that in the structure of the DNA molecule. Double Helix
Constrains imposed by the molecular structure of DNA and RNA on the formation of hydrogen bonds among the four purine and pyrimidine bases such that adenine pairs with thymine or uracil, and guanine pairs with cytosine. Base-pairing rules
Genetics. The process by which double-stranded DNA makes copies of itself, each strand, as it separates, synthesizing a complementary strand. Replication
Any of a class of enzymes involved in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid from its deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate precursors. DNA Polymerase
Molecular biology describes the two-step process, transcription and translation,by which the information in genes flows into proteins. Central Dogma
Any of a class of single-stranded molecules transcribed from DNA in the cell nucleus or in the mitochondrion or chloroplast RNA
The first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA. Transcription
An enzyme that synthesizes the formation of RNA from a DNA template during transcription. RNA Polymerase
The form of RNA in which genetic information transcribed from DNA as a sequence of bases is transferred to a ribosome. Messenger RNA
A type of RNA, distinguished by its length and abundance, functioning in protein synthesis as a component of ribosomes. Ribosomal RNA
A small RNA molecule, consisting of a strand of nucleotides folded into a clover-leaf shape, that picks up an unattached amino acid within the cell cytoplasm and conveys it to the ribosome for protein synthesis. Transfer RNA
The process follows transcription in which the DNA sequence is copied (or transcribed) into an mRNA. Translation
A triplet of adjacent nucleotides in the messenger RNA chain that codes for a specific amino acid in the synthesis of a protein molecule. Codon
A codon that stops the synthesis of a protein molecule. Stop Codon
A codon that starts the synthesis of protein molecule. Start Codon
A sequence of three nucleotides in a region of transfer RNA that recognizes a complementary coding triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA during translation by the ribosomes in protein biosynthesis. Anticodon
Occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene. Mutation
A type of mutation that causes a single nucleotide base substitution, insertion, or deletion of the genetic material, DNA or RNA. Point Mutation
A number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three. Frameshift Mutation

Biology Vocabulary Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

what is the basic unit of a chemical element? atom
what is a substance consisting of atoms which all have the same number of protons? element
what is the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound? molecule
what is a chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charges? ionic bond
what is a chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electrons, especially pairs of electrons, between atoms? covalent bond
What is a weak chemical bond between an electronegative atom, such as fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen, and a hydrogen atom bound to another electronegative atom? Hydrogen bond
What is the sticking together of alike molecules, such as water molecule being attracted to another water molecule? Cohesion
What is the force of attraction between unlike molecules, or the attraction between the surfaces of contacting bodies? Adhesion
What is a measure of the hydorgen ion concentration of a solution? pH
What is a molecule that can combine with others of the same kind to form a polymer? Monomer
What are large molecules composed of many similar smaller molecules linked together ? Polymer
What is a large complex molecule, such as nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, with relatively large molecular weight ? Macromolecule
What are molecular compounds made from just three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.? Carbohydrate
What is a series of sweet-tasting, crystalline carbohydrates, especially a simple sugar or a chain of two or more simple sugars? Saccharide
what is an organic molecule of biological origin that is insoluble in water and soluble in non-polar solvents ? lipid
What is a molecule composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.? protein
What are the building blocks of all biological proteins ? Amino acid
What are proteins that act as catalysts within living cells ? Enzyme
What is a substance capable of initiating or speeding up a chemical reaction? catalyst
What is a model that assumes an enzyme and substrate have a rigid interaction with each other, where a substrate fits in a key-like fashion to its lock, the enzyme, turning on the reaction ? Lock and key model
What are acids consist of either one or two long chains of repeating units called nucleotides, which consist of a nitrogen base attached to a sugar phosphate? nucleic acid
what is a chemical reaction that builds up molecules by losing water molecules ? dehydration systhesis
What is a chemical reaction in which two molecules combine to form a larger molecule with the elimination of a small molecule ? condensation reaction

Transcription and Translation Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

The process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) RNA Polymerase / The main transcription enzyme Transcription
The main transcription enzyme, and and enzyme that links ribo-nucleotides into a growing RNA chain during transcription. RNA Polymerase
Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to a(n) ________ sequence near the beginning of a gene (directly or through helper proteins) Promoter
Transcription uses one of the two exposed DNA strands as a template. RNA polymerase "walks" along this strand of DNA in the 3' to 5' direction what is this strand called? Template Strand
This is recognized by one of the general transcription factors, allowing other transcription factors and eventually RNA polymerase to bind. It also contains lots of As and Ts, which make it easy to pull the strands of DNA apart. TATA Box
The stage when the RNA strand gets longer, thanks to the addition of new nucleotides. Elongation
RNA polymerase will keep transcribing until it gets signals to stop. What is the process of ending transcription called? Termination
Transcription factors help eukaryotic RNA polymerase recognize promoter sequences, forming this. Transcription Initiation
The process where a cell reads information from a molecule called a messenger RNA (mRNA) and uses this information to build a protein. Translation
When an mRNA is being translated by multiple ribosomes, the mRNA and ribosomes together are said to form a(n) ___________. Polyribosome
Translation involves “decoding” a messenger RNA (mRNA) and using its information to build a(n) _________, or chain of amino acids. Polypeptide
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of genetic code. Codons
Each tRNA has a(n) _________, a set of three nucleotides that binds to a matching mRNA codon through base pairing. The other end of the tRNA carries the amino acid that's specified by the codon. Anticodon
tRNAs bind to mRNAs inside of a protein-and-RNA in this structure. Ribosome
In this stage, the ribosome gets together with the mRNA and the first tRNA so translation can begin. Intiation
During initiation, a ribosome, mRNA, and an initiator tRNA must come together to form the __________, the molecular setup needed to start making a new protein. Initiation Complex
This process includes RNA splicing, the addition of a modified nucleotide 5' cap to the 5'end, and the addition of a poly-A tail to the 3' end. RNA processing
In Translation, this nucleotide sequence specifies the amino acid sequence. mRNA
A sequence within a primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed. Exons
A type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processign level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcription. Alternative RNA splicing
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription fo specific genes. Transcription factors

Chemistry of Life Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

The basic unit of a chemical element Atom
A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means Element
A substance formed when two or more chemical elements are chemically bonded together. Compound
A tiny or very small piece of something Molecule
The sticking together of alike molecules Cohesion
The force of attraction between unlike molecules Adhesion
A substance in which the particles are spread out evenly Solution
Any class of compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water Acid
A substance that accepts protons from acids Base
Molecular compounds made from just three elements, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Carbohydrates
A group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, and steroids Lipids
A molecule composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds Proteins
DNA and RNA Nucleic Acid
The building blocks of protein. Only 20 of these. Amino acids
The strength and vitality required for sub stained physical or mental activity Energy
The minimum quantity of energy that the reacting species Activation energy
A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about reactions Enzyme
A substance or layer that underlies something or on which some process occurs in particular Substrate
A region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substances during a reaction Active site