Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

A set of chemical reactions in a cell that occurs when a molecule attaches to a receptor on the cell membrane Signaltransductionpathway
A system of stimuli and response correlated to population density Quorum Sensing
A form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells Paracrine
A release of hormones that act on distant target cells in the body Endocrine
Similar to paracrine signaling but there is a special structure called the synapse between the cell originating and the cell receiving the signal Synaptic
A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs Hormone
When the target cell detects a signal, usually in the form of a small, water-soluble molecule, via binding to receptor protein Reception
The process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector Transduction
Any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus Response
Usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein Ligand
Act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior GProtein
Constitute a large protein family of receptors, that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses Gproteincoupledreceptor
Guanine Triphosphate GTP
Guanine Diphosphate GDP
Refers to the reversible transition of a molecule into a nearly identical chemical or physical state Activated
High-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors RTKs
A phosphate group is added Phosphorylation
They pass the message to the next signaling component in the chain without otherwise participating Relay Protein
A group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger Ligandgatedionchannel
Kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them Protein Kinase
A phosphate group is taken away Dephosphorylation
A sequence of events where one enzyme phosphorylates another, causing a chain reaction leading to the phosphorylation of thousands of proteins Phosphorylation cascade
An enzyme that removes a phosphate group from the phosphorylated amino acid residue of its substrate protein Protein Phosphatases
A molecule that relays messages in a cell from a receptor on a cell membrane to the final destination where an action within the cell is to take place second messengers
A secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells IP3
A glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages DAG
A mechanism leading to multiple copies of a chromosomal region within a chromosome arm Amplification
Interact and/or bind with multiple members of a signaling pathway, tethering them into complexes Scaffolding Proteins
A process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms Apoptosis
Protrusion of the plasma membrane of a cell Blebbing

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Cellular Communication Vocabulary Crossword Match the word to the definition.

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

Strengthening of stimulus energy during transduction. Amplification
Convert (a substance, molecule, etc.) into a reactive form. Activated
The bulging out of a part of a cell below the plasma membrane or expansion of air-filled tissue, as occurs in the lungs in bullous emphysema. Blebbing
Process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Apoptosis
A common biochemical process in which a phosphate group is removed from an organic compound through hydrolysis. Dephosphorylation
Occurs when endocrine cells release hormones that act on distant target cells in the body. Endocrine signaling
Monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period. GDP
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior. G Protein
Seven-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors, that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses. G Protein Coupled Receptor
Generated by one of the enzymes in the citric acid cycle. GTP
A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs. Hormone
Substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. Ligand
Ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger, such as a neurotransmitter. Ligand-gated ion channel
Form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior or differentiation of those cells. Paracrine signaling
The transferring of phosphoryl group from a donor to the recipient molecule. Phosphorylation
Sequence of events where one enzyme phosphorylates another, causing a chain reaction leading to the phosphorylation of thousands of proteins. Phosphorylation Cascade
Kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation). Protein Kinase
An enzyme that removes a phosphate group from the phosphorylated amino acid residue of its substrate protein. Protein Phosphatases
System of stimuli and response correlated to population density. Quorum sensing
Target cell's detection of a signal via binding of a signaling molecule, or ligand. Reception
Any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus. Reponse
The high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
Crucial regulators of many key signaling pathways. Scaffolding Proteins
Similar to paracrine signaling but there is a special structure called the synapse between the cell originating and the cell receiving the signal. Synaptic signaling
A set of chemical reactions in a cell that occurs when a molecule, such as a hormone, attaches to a receptor on the cell membrane. Signal Transduction Pathway
Molecules that relay signals received at receptors on the cell surface — such as the arrival of protein hormones, growth factors, etc. — to target molecules in the cytosol and/or nucleus. Second messengers
Process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. Transduction
Can control different processes in the cell including the cell cycle. Relay Protein
Messenger of neurologic information from one cell to another. Neurotransmitter

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Hormones and Endocrine System Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

molecule secreted into the extracellular fluid hormone
, chemical signaling by hormones is the function of the endocrine system
major communication and control system nervous system
, ductless organs with endocrine cells endocrine glands
secreted molecules that act over short distances to reach their target cells by diffusion local regulators
targets lie near secreting cell paracrine
secreted molecules act on the secreting cell itself autocrine
secreted by neurons nerotransmitters
specialized neurons secrete molecules that diffuse from nerve cell endings neurohormones
chemicals released into external environment pheromones
series of changes in cellular proteins that converts the signal into a response signal transduction
released in a stressful situation epinephrine
polypeptide local regulator in immune responses cytokines
stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation growth factors
nitrogen and double-bonded oxygen nitric oxide
modified fatty acids prostaglandins
gland located behind the stomach pancreas
response reduces the initial stimulus negative feedback
triggers uptake of glucose from the blood insulin
promotes release of glucose into the blood glucagon
scattered throughout the pancreas islets of Langerhans
caused by deficiency of insulin diabetes mellitus
released by the prothoracic glands ecdysone

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Photosynthesis Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugar and starches photosynthesis
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer autotroph
the steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process light reactions
a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria chlorophyll
an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials heterotroph
specialized ground tissue that makes up the bulk of most leaves; performs most of a plant's photosynthesis mesophyll
the second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate. Calvin Cycle
a colored chemical compound that absorbs light, producing color pigment
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy. thylakoid
granum (grana) a stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast granum
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water. stroma
large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP ATP synthase
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis, involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate. These reactions are also called the Calvin Cycle dark reactions
is the set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. Cellular respiration
a compound composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis. ATP

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Gene Regulation Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

A DNA-binding transcription metabolite that positively modulates an allosteric Enzyme or regulates one or more genes by increasing the rate of transcription. Activators
A protein required for recognition by rNA polymerases of specific stimulatory sequences in eukaryotic genes. TranscriptionFactors
The reduction of a chemical Compound to one less complex, as by splitting off one or more groups. degradation time
Gene elimination from differentiating cells in some protozoans, insects, and crustaceans. gene loss
An increase in the frequency of a gene or chromosomal region, as a result of replicating a DNA segment by in vivo or in vitro process, such as by gene duplication or polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Amplification
Genetic elements important in the function of a specific promoter. enhancers
A group of synthetic hormones steriods
The process by which introns are removed from hnRNA to produce mature messenger RNA that contains only exons. splicing
A permanent, heritable change in the nucleotide sequence in a gene or a chromosome. mutations
A biochemical process involving addition of methyl groups to DNA, silencing a gene or cluster of genes. methylation
DNA segments that are mobile that are capable of replicating and inserting copies of DNA at random sites in the same or a different chromosome. transponsons
The addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein or other organic molecule. Phosphorylation
Formation of an acetyl derivative. Acetylation
A molecule consisting of two subunits that fit together and work as one to build proteins according to the genetic sequence held within the messenger RNA. Ribosome Barriers

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Biomolecules Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

What biomolecule carries genetic information NucleicAcids
What biomolecule is used for quick energy Carbohydrates
What biomolecule stores long-term energy Lipids
What biomolecule makes muscle Proteins
Sugars, starches, and cellulose Carbohydrates
Fats, oils, wax, cholesterol, cell membrane, and testoserone Lipids
DNA and RNA nucleicacids
Cartilage, meats, nuts, beans, feathers, skin, and hair Proteins
A carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together Polysaccharide
Its simple sugars and its the most basic units of carbohydrates Monosaccharides
It consists of two monosaccharide molecules joined together Disaccharides
Which fatty acid can have one or more bonds unsaturated
Which fatty acid has only single bonds Saturated
Formed from glycerol and three fatty acid groups Triglyceride
What is a lipid that contains a phosphate group in its molecule Phospholipid
What is a large number of amino-acids that are bonded together in a chain Polypeptides
Is a amino acid a polymer or a monomer Monomer
It forms the basic structural unit (base) of nucleic acids Nucleotides
Is DNA or RNA a monomer or polymer polymer
Only biomolecule with nitrogen Proteins

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Circulatory System Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

place where substances are exchanged between the blood and body cells capillaries
the liquid part of blood Plasma
a flap of tissue that prevents blood from flowing backward valve
bloodvessles that carry blood back to the heart veins
take up oxyhgen in the blood and deliver it to cells elsewhere in the body redbloodcells
the body's disease fighters whitebloodcells
consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood cardiovascular system
(singular) lower chambers of the heart ventricle
(singular) upper chambers of the heart atrium
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration diffusion
largest artery in the body aorta
a force exerted by blood against the walls of blood vessels blood pressure
the alternating expansion and relaxation of the artery walls pulse
a group of heart cells that sends out signals that make the heart muscle contract pacemaker
hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body heart
blood vessles that carry blood away from the heart arteries
iron-containing protein that binds chemically to oxygen molecules hemoglobin

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DNA Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

A compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA. Nucleotide
A pair of parallel helices intertwined aboucomt a mon axis,especially that in the structure of the DNA molecule. Double Helix
Constrains imposed by the molecular structure of DNA and RNA on the formation of hydrogen bonds among the four purine and pyrimidine bases such that adenine pairs with thymine or uracil, and guanine pairs with cytosine. Base-pairing rules
Genetics. The process by which double-stranded DNA makes copies of itself, each strand, as it separates, synthesizing a complementary strand. Replication
Any of a class of enzymes involved in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid from its deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate precursors. DNA Polymerase
Molecular biology describes the two-step process, transcription and translation,by which the information in genes flows into proteins. Central Dogma
Any of a class of single-stranded molecules transcribed from DNA in the cell nucleus or in the mitochondrion or chloroplast RNA
The first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA. Transcription
An enzyme that synthesizes the formation of RNA from a DNA template during transcription. RNA Polymerase
The form of RNA in which genetic information transcribed from DNA as a sequence of bases is transferred to a ribosome. Messenger RNA
A type of RNA, distinguished by its length and abundance, functioning in protein synthesis as a component of ribosomes. Ribosomal RNA
A small RNA molecule, consisting of a strand of nucleotides folded into a clover-leaf shape, that picks up an unattached amino acid within the cell cytoplasm and conveys it to the ribosome for protein synthesis. Transfer RNA
The process follows transcription in which the DNA sequence is copied (or transcribed) into an mRNA. Translation
A triplet of adjacent nucleotides in the messenger RNA chain that codes for a specific amino acid in the synthesis of a protein molecule. Codon
A codon that stops the synthesis of a protein molecule. Stop Codon
A codon that starts the synthesis of protein molecule. Start Codon
A sequence of three nucleotides in a region of transfer RNA that recognizes a complementary coding triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA during translation by the ribosomes in protein biosynthesis. Anticodon
Occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene. Mutation
A type of mutation that causes a single nucleotide base substitution, insertion, or deletion of the genetic material, DNA or RNA. Point Mutation
A number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three. Frameshift Mutation

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Biology Vocabulary Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

what is the basic unit of a chemical element? atom
what is a substance consisting of atoms which all have the same number of protons? element
what is the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound? molecule
what is a chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charges? ionic bond
what is a chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electrons, especially pairs of electrons, between atoms? covalent bond
What is a weak chemical bond between an electronegative atom, such as fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen, and a hydrogen atom bound to another electronegative atom? Hydrogen bond
What is the sticking together of alike molecules, such as water molecule being attracted to another water molecule? Cohesion
What is the force of attraction between unlike molecules, or the attraction between the surfaces of contacting bodies? Adhesion
What is a measure of the hydorgen ion concentration of a solution? pH
What is a molecule that can combine with others of the same kind to form a polymer? Monomer
What are large molecules composed of many similar smaller molecules linked together ? Polymer
What is a large complex molecule, such as nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, with relatively large molecular weight ? Macromolecule
What are molecular compounds made from just three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.? Carbohydrate
What is a series of sweet-tasting, crystalline carbohydrates, especially a simple sugar or a chain of two or more simple sugars? Saccharide
what is an organic molecule of biological origin that is insoluble in water and soluble in non-polar solvents ? lipid
What is a molecule composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.? protein
What are the building blocks of all biological proteins ? Amino acid
What are proteins that act as catalysts within living cells ? Enzyme
What is a substance capable of initiating or speeding up a chemical reaction? catalyst
What is a model that assumes an enzyme and substrate have a rigid interaction with each other, where a substrate fits in a key-like fashion to its lock, the enzyme, turning on the reaction ? Lock and key model
What are acids consist of either one or two long chains of repeating units called nucleotides, which consist of a nitrogen base attached to a sugar phosphate? nucleic acid
what is a chemical reaction that builds up molecules by losing water molecules ? dehydration systhesis
What is a chemical reaction in which two molecules combine to form a larger molecule with the elimination of a small molecule ? condensation reaction

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Characteristics of Life Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

Liquid part of a cell inside the cell membrane Cytoplasm
Membrane surrounded component of a eukaryotic cell with a specialized function Organelle
Stiff structure outside the cell membrane that protects a cell from attack by viruses and other harmful organisms CellWall
A large macromolecule that does not dissolve in water Lipid
Series of chemical reactions that convert light energy, water, and carbon dioxide into the food energy molecule glucose and give off oxygen Photosynthesis
Process by which glucose is broken down into smaller molecules Glycolysis
Process during which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane Endocytosis
The movement of substances through a cell membrane using the cell's energy ActiveTransport
Macromolecules that form when long chains of molecules called nucleotides join together. NucleicAcids
When joining many small molecules together Macromolecule
One sugar molecule, two sugar molecules, or a long chain of sugar molecules Carbohydrates
Network of threadlike proteins joined together that gives a cell it's shape and helps it move Cytoskeleton
Long chains of amino acid molecules Proteins
All living things are made of one or more cells, the cell is the smallest unit of life, and all new cells come from preexisting cells CellTheory
Reaction that eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells can use to obtain energy from food when oxygen levels are low Fermentation
Process during which a cell's vesicles release their contents outside the cell Exocytosis
Flexible covering that protects the inside of a cell from the environment outside the cell CellMembrane
Movement of substance through a cell membrane without using the cell's energy PassiveTransport
Membrane-bound organelle that uses light energy and males glucose from water and carbon dioxide in the process of photosynthesis Chloroplast
An organism's ability to maintain steady internal conditions when outside conditions change Homeostasis
The smallest unit of life Cell
Living things that are made of only one cell Unicellular
Movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration Diffusion
Series of chemical reactions that convert the energy in food molecules into a usable form of energy called ATP CellularRespiration
Things that have all the characteristics of life Organism
Living things that are made from two or more cells Multicellular
Part of a eukaryotic cell that directs cell activity and contains genetic info stored in DNA Nucleus

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Cells Answer Key Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

The basic building blocks of all living things. Cell
A group of similar cells that live and work together Tissues
A collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function. Organ
A group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions. Organ System
An individual life form. Organism
Surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell and gives the cell structure and support. Cell Membrane
A gel-like substance inside the cell that contains all the cell parts and organelles. Cytoplasm
A group of tissues that work together to perform a specialized function or functions. Organelles
Molecules that contain all the genetic material and traits for each organism. DNA
Molecules are single stranded nucleic acids composed of nucleotides. RNA
A type of plastid that contains chlorophyll which is where photosynthesis takes place. Chloroplast
An organelle that modifies,sorts,and packs molecules and stores or sends it when needed. Golgi Complex
Often known as the "powerhouses" of the cell, this organelle generates energy for the cell through cellular respiration.​This means it takes in nutrients from the cell, breaks it down, and turns it into energy. Mitochondria
An organelle in both plant and animal cells that provides support and participates in a variety of cellular functions including storage, protection, and growth. Vacuole
Sacs of enzymes that digest food, water, and waste Lysosomes
Extensive network of membranes composed of both regions with ribosomes (rough ER) and regions without ribosomes (smooth ER). Endoplasmic Reticulum
Tiny structures bound by a membrane that contain enzymes that produce hydrogen peroxide as a by-product. Peroxisomes
The outermost covering of a cell that protects the cell and gives it shape & support. Cell Wall
Multicellular organism Eukaryote
Unicellular organism Prokaryote
Organisms made up of only one cell Unicellular Organisms
Organisms made up of two or more cells Multicellular Organisms
Chemical compound that contains carbon atoms. Organic Compound
Molecules that allow organisms to transfer genetic info from one generation to the next. There are two types of nucleic acids: DNA and RNA. Nucleic Acid
Consisting of RNA and proteins, they are responsible for protein production and assembly. Ribosomes
A substance made entirely of one type of atom. Element
The smallest unit of a substance that maintains the properties of that substance. Atom
Membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and DNA. Also controls all of the cells activities. Nucleus
A membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleus in eukaryotic cells. Nuclear Membrane
A structure inside the cell nucleus that rewrites ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and combine it with proteins, results in the formation of incomplete ribosomes. Nucleolus
Tubelike structures that aid in cell division and Celiogenesis, are generally are found close to the nucleus Centrioles
A theory that descibes the basic characteristics of all cells and organisms. It is one if the foundational ideas of modern biology Cell Theory

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