a term coined by Henry Grady and used to describe the southern states after Reconstruction.
new south
time period in the late 1800s and early 1990s that attempted to improve society by legislating moral behavior, improving education, and helping those in need.
Progressive Era
three of Georgia's most powerful politicians of the post-Reconstruction era: Joseph Brown, Alfred Colquitt, and John Gordon; supported the convict lease system.
Bourbon Triumvirate
a system in which prisoners were leased to companies for their labor; companies were suppose to provide housing and food.
convict lease system
"Spokesman of the New South;" managing editor of the Atlanta Constitution in the 1880s.
Henry Grady
held in Atlanta in 1895; promoted industry and trade and tried to portray the progress made by the South.
International Cotton Exposition
member of the Populist Party; supported farming people of Georgia; sponsored the law for rural free delivery.
Tom Watson
legislation introduced by Tom Watson that created a new service that brought farm families daily delivery of newspapers, catalogs, magazines, advertisements, and letters free of charge.
Rural Free Delivery
a political party formed in the late 1800s by labor organizations and the Farmers' Alliance; lead by Tom Watson; known as the People's Party.
first woman to serve in the U.S. senate; writer and campaigner for Progressive Era reforms, especially women's rights.
Rebecca Latimer Felton
mass civil disturbance in Atlanta which lasted two days; led to many African American deaths and a few deaths of whites, lots of property was damaged.
1906 Atlanta Riot
violence attributed to racial factors; Atlanta race riot was one of the largest demonstrations of this type of violence.
racial violence
Jewish man who worked at the National Pencil Company in Atlanta who was convicted of murdering Mary Phagan in 1913; was lynched by a mob in Marietta in 1915 after the governor of Georgia changed Frank's sentence from the death penalty to life in prison.
Leo Frank Case
a procedure for political primaries that was used from 1917 to 1962 in which winners were selected by county "unit" votes rather than the statewide popular vote.
County Unit System
laws that enforced segregation in public places.
Jim Crow Laws
court case that ruled separate but equal public facilities were legal.
Plessy v. Ferguson
taking away a person's right to vote.
tax on voting.
poll tax
a test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to vote.
literacy test
a provision allowing former Confederate soldiers and their male descendants to vote without having to take a literacy test.
grandfather clause
early Civil Rights leader who believed the way to achieve equality was through economic independence; gave famous "Atlanta Compromise" speech where he said, "Cast down your bucket where you are!".
Booker T. Washington
early Civil Rights leader who believed the way to achieve equality was through social and political integration; wanted higher education for the "Talented Tenth".
W.E.B. DuBois
married couple that were early Civil Rights leaders and social reformers in Atlanta.
John and Lugenia Burns Hope
born a slave; emancipated; became a barber Atlanta; became president of Atlanta Mutual Insurance Company; an entrepreneur.
Alonzo Herndon
a speech given by Booker T. Washington in 1895 at the Cotton States and International Exposition that proposed that blacks and whites should agree to benefit from each other.
Atlanta Compromise speech