Focusing of mental processing on particular stimuli.
Theoretical perspective in which learning and behavior are described and explained in terms of stimulus-response relationships.
Theoretical perspective that focuses on the mental processes underlying learning and behavior, including perception, memory, and reasoning.
Theoretical perspective that focuses on how people’s general physical, social, and/or cultural surroundings support their learning, development, and behavior.
Complex thinking, learning, and knowledge are located primarily in the upper and outer parts of the brain collectively known as the _____, which rests on the top and sides of the brain like a thick, bumpy toupee.
A learner’s existing knowledge about specific topics and the world in general.
Where learners store general knowledge and beliefs about the world, recollections of past experiences, and information learned in school.
Involves recognizing a relationship between new information and something previously stored in long-term memory.
Ability to save something (mentally) that has been previously learned; also, the mental “location” where such information is saved.
Process of mentally “finding” information previously stored in memory.
Stimulus that provides guidance about where to “look” for a piece of information in long-term memory.
Cognitive process in which a learner tries to remember information in a relatively uninterpreted form, with little or no effort to make sense of or attach meaning to it.
The component of memory that holds the information you receive from your senses in more or less its original, unencoded form.
Theoretical perspective that focuses on how people learn by observing others and how they eventually assume control over their own behavior.
Theoretical perspective emphasizing the importance of society and culture in promoting learning and development.
Long-term change in mental representations or associations due to experience.
The specific things individuals do mentally as they try to interpret and remember what they see, hear and study.
The component of memory where attended-to information stays for a short time so that learners can make better sense of it.
A certain amount of information that learners must simultaneously think about, along with certain ways that they must think about it, in order to make sense of and remember what they’re studying.
A learner changes or adds to incoming information in some way in order to remember it more easily.
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