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the branch of mathematics concerning numerical descriptions of how likely an event is to occur, or how likely it is that a proposition is true Probablity

A possible result of an experiment. Example: rolling a 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 Outcomes

A set of possible outcomes resulting from a particular experiment Event

probability that is determined on the basis of reasoning. Theoretical probability

-has a single outcome.

can only happen 1 way simple event

steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences; etymologically, Inference

probability that is determined on the basis of the results of an experiment repeated many times. Experimental probability

summary statistic that represents the amount of dispersion in a dataset. measure of variability

a single performance of well-defined experiment trials

when the result of the second event is not affected by the result of the first event. independent events

a tool in the fields of general mathematics, probability, and statistics that helps calculate the number of possible outcomes of an event or problem, and to cite those potential outcomes in an organized way. tree diagram

The process of imitating a real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas Simulation

an outcome of a random experiment sample

where each member of a population is equally likely to be selected random sample

a value that attempts to describe a set of data by identifying the central position of the data set measures of center

The difference between the lowest and highest values. range

he combination of two or more simple events (with two or more outcomes) compound event

when the outcome of the first event affects the outcome of the second event, so that the probability is changed. dependent events

states that if there are p ways to do one thing, and q ways to do another thing, then there are p×q ways to do both things. fundamental counting principle

a discrete group of people, animals or things that can be identified by at least one common characteristic for the purposes of data collection and analysis. population

is a group or set chosen from a larger statistical population or group of factors or instances that adequately replicates the larger group according to whatever characteristic or quality is under study. representative sample

one in which the method used to create the sample results in samples that are systematically different from the population biased sample

as a graphical method of displaying variation in a set of data. box and whisker plot

the average distance between each data value and the mean. mean and absolute deviaton

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A set of all outcomes in an experiment EVENT

The ratio of the number of times a specified event happens to the total number of trials or experiments performed Experimental Probability

An event that includes two or more independent events Compound Event

When there are M ways to do one thing, and N ways to do another, then there are M x N ways of doing both Counting Principle

All the possible results in a probability experiment Sample Space

An event that consists of exactly one outcome Simple Event

The number of possible ways an event can happen compared to all possible outcomes Theoretical Probability

All the OTHER possible outcomes of an experiment Complement

A chart that organizes possible outcomes for a process to make it easy to count Tree Diagram

All possible results of a trial or an experiment Outcome

Denoting two events that cannot occur at the same time Mutually Exclusive

The likelihood or chance of a given event happening Probability

An event whose outcome has nothing to do with the outcome of other event Independent Event

An event whose outcome is affected by the outcome of another event Dependent Event

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A set of information data

the range of numbers that includes the largest and smallest values scale

the difference between the largest and smallest values range

the scale divided into equal, non-overlapping parts intervals

a graphical representation of data on a number line line plot

data that is unbroken and numerical continuous

a graph depicting bars that represent non-continuous data bar graph

a bar graph representing continuous data; bars touch histogram

the middle data point when the data are in order median

the sum of the data divided by the number of data mean

the data that occurs most mode

the ratio of the number of successful outcomes to the number of possible outcomes probability

the set of all possible outcomes sample space

the result of a probability experiment outcome

when the result of the first event does not affect the result of the second event independent events

when the result of the first event does affect the result of the second event dependent events

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The maximum or minimum point of a quadratic function. vertex

The line of symmetry that runs through the vertex; can be found algebraically: x=-b/(2a) axis of symmetry

All the input values of a function. domain

All the output values of a function. range

x = -b ± √(b² - 4ac)/2a quadratic formula

one of the possible outcomes of a probability experiment event

a possible result of an experiment outcome

a diagram that shows how two or more sets in a universal set are related Ven diagram

a collection or list of items SET

events such that the outcome of one event does not affect the probability of the outcome of another event independent events

'sides and angles' that are images of each other will be equal if the two triangles are congruent. CORRESPONDING PARTS

Any number that can be written as a simple fraction, with a whole number numerator and denominator, such as terminating decimals, repeating decimals and integers. rational number

A square with a whole number root. perfect square

An angle of exactly 90 degrees. right angle

A triangle that contains a right angle. right triangle

Any number that cannot be written as a simple fraction, such as non-repeating, non-terminating decimals, square roots of non-perfect squares, pi. irrational number

The result of multiplying a number by itself square

Greek philosopher, 570-495 BC. There is no evidence that Pythagoras himself worked on or proved the Pythagorean Theorem, which was used previously by Babylonians and Indians. Pythagoras

A mathematical symbol that indicates the extraction of the root of the square inside. radical sign

the statement that the values of two mathematical expressions are equal equation

a numerical or constant quantity placed before and multiplying the variable in an algebraic expression Coefficient

solving a problem solutions

value that,when multiplied by itself,gives the number roots

relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second ratio

two ratios or fractions are equal proportion

relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second ratio

a single number or variable, or numbers and variables multiplied together terms

an unbroken part of a circle arc

an angle whose vertex is at the center of a circle central angle

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The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment Sample space

The set that contains elements or objects that belong to either A or B or to both Union of two sets (A u B)

The set having no elements Null or Empty set

Refers to the elements not in that set Complement of a set

A diagram that shows relationships between different finite sets Venn Diagram

Two or more events that cannot occur at the same time Mutually exclusive

Two or more events that can occur at the same time Mutually inclusive

When two events A and B are mutually exclusive, the probability that A or B will occur is the some of probability of each events Addition rule

Probability of both occurring by p(A and B) Event

Total number outcome is based on a particular category or event p(A/B) Conditional probability

Two events are dependent if the outcome of the first affect the outcome of the second probability changed Dependent event

Two events, A and B are independent if the fact that A occur does not effect the probability that B occur Independent events

Is the chance that something's will happen how likely is that some event will happen sometime you can measure a probability with a number like 10 percent chance of rain Basic probability

A tree diagram is a toal that we use in general mathematics ..Probability and stastic that allow us to calculate the number of possible outcome of an event Tree diagrams

The probability of two independent events occurring can found by the following former p(AnB) =p(A).p(B) Multiplication rule

When two events are said to be independent of each other Two way table

Drawing a red card from a standard deck of card is 26/52 so percent the probability of drawing a deck is 13/52 (25) percent the odd for event is the ratin of the number Odds

The chance of an event occurring Probability

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Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis Data

Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities Statistics

The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn Population

Official count or survey of a population Census

A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like Sample

A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation Parameter

A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data Statistic

Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range Quantitative Data

Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data Qualitative Data

Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number Discrete

Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions Continuous

Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only. Nominal

Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Ordinal

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful Interval

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point. Ratio

Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied Observational Study

Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time Cross Sectional Study

Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome Prospective Study

Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence Retrospective Study

a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable. Confounding

The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not. Blinding

noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment. Placebo Effect

denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test. Double Blind

With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Blocks

the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. Replication

type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Systematic Sampling

One of the non-probability sampling methods Convenience Sampling

Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata Stratified Sampling

sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population Cluster Sampling

the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population Sampling Error

the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling. Nonsampling Error

a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected Random Sample

subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. Simple Random Sample

Subjects that are very carefully chosen Rigorously Controlled Design

subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection Completely Randomized Design

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Consists of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses. Data

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions Statistics

The collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest Population

A subset of a population Sample

A numerical description of a population characteristic Parameter

A numerical description of a sample characteristic Statistic

The branch of statistics that involves the organization, summmarization, and display of data Descriptive Statistic

Consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries Qualitative Data

Consist of numerical measurements or counts Quantitative Data

Occurs when an experiment cannot tell the difference between the effects of the different factors on a variable. Confounding Variable

A technique where the subject does not know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or a placebo Blinding

A process of randomly assigning subjects to different treatment groups. Randomization

The repetition of an experiment using a large group of subjects. Replication

A count or measure of an entire population. Census

On in which every member of he population has an equal chance of being selected. Random Sample

Depending on the focus of the study, members of the population are divided into two or more subsets Stratified Sample

Divide the population into groups and select the members in one or more groups Cluster Sample

Each member of the population is assigned a number Systematic Sample

Convenience Sample Convenience Sample

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The ________ of an event is a ratio that compares the number of favorable outcomes to the number of possible outcomes. Probability

Outcomes occur at ________ if each outcome is equally likely to occur. Random

__________ ____________ is based on uniform probability- what should happen when conducting a probability experiment. Theoretical Probability

______________ _________ is based on relative frequency- what actually occurs during such experiment. Experimental Probability

The set of all the possible outcomes in a probability experiment is called the _________ _________. Sample Space

Organized lists, tables, and _______ ________ can be used to represent the sample space. Tree Diagrams

A _________ ___________ is one in which there is more than one possible outcome. Compound Event

A possible result in a probability experiment is called ___________. Outcome

_________ ________ are two events in which either one or the other must happen, but they cannot happen at the same time. Complementary Events

__________ __________ is the ratio of the number of experimental successes to the number of experimental attempts. Relative Frequency

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what is the average of a given set numbers? mean

what do you call the data that measures distribution around the mean? variance

what measures how spread out numbers are? standard deviation

what graph shows a quantitative comparison using bars bar graph

a graphical display that shows data grouped ranges with connected bars? histogram

a graph of plotted points that shows a relationship between two sets of data scatter plot

what describes the strength and direction of relationships of two variables? correlation

the likelihood of an event happening would be? probability

two or more events that cannot occur at the same exact time mutually exclusive

this would that the event hasn't occured complement

circles overlapping or not to show a direct relationship between groups Venn diagram

an event with a probability of 1 certain event

an event with a probability of 0 is an uncertain event

an arrangement of objects with regards to the order permutation

a group of numbers that have been arranged arrangement

when you see "!" after a number (12!) that is called? factorial

all possible outcomes of a set sample space

when two events have similar outcomes non-mutually exclusive

when you dont know the set but you're able to make it by describing whats in it set notation

selection of all or part of a set of numbers without regard to their order combination

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numbers or information describing some characteristic data

collection of data from every element of a population census

measured characteristic of a sample stastistic

data where the number of possibilities is finite discrete

characterizes data may be arranged in order ordinal

data you find and observe observational

situation occurs when effects of 2 or more variables can not be distinguished from each other confounding

groups of subjects that are similar blocks

data is readily available convience

difference between population result and true population samplingerror

sample of particular size simplerandomsample

methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, summerizing, etc. statistics

subset of a population sample

observations made by counting quantitative

infinatley many possible values continuous

level of measurement interval

data is observed from one point of time crosssectional

experiments undergo a placebo blinding

repetition of an expiriment replication

samples are drawn from groups stratified

untreated subject believes they are under treatment placeboeffect

entire collection of elements to be studied population

measured characteristics parameter

observation using senses qualitative

characterizes data by names and labels nomial

data that can be arranged in order like a fraction ratio

data is collected from the past retrospective

subject and person giving subject treatment are under a placebo doubleblind

every (x) element is selected systematic

randomly selecting subjects in a population cluster

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chance of something happening Probability

total number of outcomes samplespace

subset of the outcomes (portion of the total) event

the set of elements that belong to one or both sets. union

elements common in all sets Intersection

elements that are not in the set compliment

the occurrence of one event does not affect the other Independent Events

An event in which more than one outcome is possible compound event

In a normal curve, the 1st standard deviations are 68%, 2nd 95%, 3rd 99.7% Imperical rule

Data Curve showing usual probability Normal Distribution

average Mean

A numerical quantity measuring some aspect of a population of scores Parameter

A numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample Statistics

Gives the number of how many standard deviations x lies from the distribution mean Zscore

Favors a certain outcome bias

When a sample is chosen from an entire group at random Cluster Sample

numerical data quantitative

categorical data qualitative

type of sample preventing bias random

way to gather information by asking people questions survey

sample of population favors a certain circumstance convenience sample

Process of applying a treatment to a sample group Experiment

the likelihood of an event based on mathematical reasoning theoretical probability

the actual probability that occurs in an experiment experimental probability

probability that event a and b will both occur intersection