- Type
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Quantitative methods

Validity

reliability

ethics

sample

qualitative methods

interview

observation

statistics

practical

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hawthorn effect

social facts

validity

reliability

documents

official statistics

case study

hypothesis

experiment

data

sampling

questionnaires

interview

participant observation

qualitative

quantitative

ethnography

triangulation

pet

theoretical

ethical

practical

interpretivist

positivist

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- Crossword Puzzle

Section of a research paper that discusses the literature used and is organized through themes Literature Review

Section of a research paper that introduces the topic and tells of its importance introduction

Type of sampling sometimes known as grab, accidental, or opportunity sampling Convenience

Sampling used for hard-to-reach populations snowball

A condition to causality where the IV comes before DV Time Order

Results when a scale produces consistent results Reliability

Part of the methods sections that explains how to go about collecting data Procedure

Also known as a questionnaire Survey

Data that is open ended, in-depth, and insight-oriented Qualitative

This has to be present in an experiement Intervention

Level of measurement where distance has no meaning Interval

Type of survey involving closed ended questions with forced choices Structured

Observation where researchers remains apart from the observed Pure

People tend to change behavior when they know they are being observed Reactivity

Data that is consistent and standardized and uses large samples in its research Quantitative

Type of criterion validity that has the ability to predict future events Predictive

Only chance determines which elements will make it into the sampe Random

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- Crossword Puzzle

What research paradigm is based on the pragmatic view of reality? mixed

What is the opposite of a variable? constant

The strongest evidence for causality comes from which research method? experimental

An integrated statement of and justification for the technical decisions involved in planning a research project research design

Data that is typically descriptive qualitative

Data that can be measured quantatitive

What form of data is collected in empirical research? primary

Research with no prior knowledge exploratory

Avoids metaphysical concepts e.g. truth, reality pragmatism

Research that describes what is happening descriptive

Research that describes the relationship between variables explanatory

What type of research forecasts future phenomena? predictive

What type of research uses findings from existing works? theoretical

The quality of being logically and factually sound validity

This refers to the consistency of a research study or measuring test reliabilty

The extent of a relationship or associations between variables but the relationship is non-casual correlational

Casual relationships between two or more variables experimental

A quantitative way of collecting data that is not an interview questionnaire

The repeatability of a set of results reliability

What type of research provides the strongest evidence about cause and effect relationships? experimental

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cumulative frequency

event

expected value

frequency histogram

frequency polygon

interquartile range

median

midpoint

mode

outlier

parameter

qualitative data

quantitative data

random variable

range

sample

sample space

statistic

statistics

weighted mean

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- Crossword Puzzle

The process of gathering, recording, analyzing, and reporting info. regarding customers or potential customers Market Research

Facts discovered in the market research process Data

Facts collected for the first time for the problem under study Primary Data

A series of questions asked to a select and representative group of people to obtain quantitative data Survey

An information-gathering technique that involves watching people by using other people or by using a camera Observation

A small group of 8-15 people who provide qualitative data through their opinions about a business, its product, or other issues under the direction of a discussion leader Focus Group

The number of people questioned for a survey Sample Size

Facts that have been collected previously for a purpose other than the problem being studied Secondary Data

Research that is used to discover consumer info whose validity can then be assessed with quantitative research questions Qualitative Research

Research often used to answer questions about quantities and amounts using a large sample of consumers Quantitative Research

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Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis Data

Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities Statistics

The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn Population

Official count or survey of a population Census

A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like Sample

A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation Parameter

A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data Statistic

Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range Quantitative Data

Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data Qualitative Data

Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number Discrete

Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions Continuous

Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only. Nominal

Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Ordinal

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful Interval

Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point. Ratio

Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied Observational Study

Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time Cross Sectional Study

Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome Prospective Study

Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence Retrospective Study

a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable. Confounding

The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not. Blinding

noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment. Placebo Effect

denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test. Double Blind

With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Blocks

the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. Replication

type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Systematic Sampling

One of the non-probability sampling methods Convenience Sampling

Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata Stratified Sampling

sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population Cluster Sampling

the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population Sampling Error

the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling. Nonsampling Error

a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected Random Sample

subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. Simple Random Sample

Subjects that are very carefully chosen Rigorously Controlled Design

subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection Completely Randomized Design

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Covert observation

Dependent variable

Extraneous

Observer effect

valid

opportunity sample

Hypothesis

null

case study

ecological

Random sample

Demand characteristics

Questionnaire

Interview

Method

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Stratified Sample

Random Sample

Cluster Sample

Inferential Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Qualitative Data

Quantitative Data

Ordinal Level

Interval Level

Nominal Level

Ratio Level

Confounding Variable

Blinding

Randomization

Replication

Parameter

Sample

Statistics

Data

Population

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analyze

conclusions

control

controlled

data

dependentvariable

evidence

experimental

explanations

hypothesis

independentvariable

naturalworld

observations

organized

patterns

prediction

qualitative

quantitative

questions

scientificmethod

support

tested

variables

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- Crossword Puzzle

In science, (blank) can also involve the recording of data via the use of instruments Observation

An (blank) is a logical interpretation based on what scientists observe. Inference

consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses. Scientific Method

variables that the experimenter changes independent variable

variable being tested in a scientific experiment Dependent Variable

is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable. control

an idea or explanation that you then test through study and experimentation. hypothesis

final process of the basic scientific method Conclusion

"a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses." analysis

which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis. Evidence

researcher subjectively gathers information that focuses more on the differences in quality than the differences in quantity, qualitative

of, relating to, or expressible in terms of quantity Quantitative