A prediction drawn from a theory
When an investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response.
When a observer records all instances of a particular behavior during a specified time period.
The effects of the observer on the behavior studied.
When observers are aware of the purposes of a study, they may see and record what they expect to see rather than what participants actually do.
Measures the relationship between nervous system processes and behavior
Brings together a wide range of information on one child, including interviews, observations, test scores, and sometimes neurobiological measures.
A descriptive, qualitative technique directed at understanding a culture or a distinct social group through participant observation
researchers gather information on individuals, generally in natu- ral life circumstances, and make no effort to alter their experiences. Then they look at relationships between participants’ characteristics and their behavior or development.
Type of research that permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to two or more treat- ment conditions.
Type of variable that the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable.
The type of variable that the one the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent variable.
When participants are studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as they get older.
In science, (blank) can also involve the recording of data via the use of instruments
An (blank) is a logical interpretation based on what scientists observe.
consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
variables that the experimenter changes
variable being tested in a scientific experiment
is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable.
an idea or explanation that you then test through study and experimentation.
final process of the basic scientific method
"a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses."
which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis.
researcher subjectively gathers information that focuses more on the differences in quality than the differences in quantity,
of, relating to, or expressible in terms of quantity
Section of a research paper that discusses the literature used and is organized through themes
Section of a research paper that introduces the topic and tells of its importance
Type of sampling sometimes known as grab, accidental, or opportunity sampling
Sampling used for hard-to-reach populations
A condition to causality where the IV comes before DV
Results when a scale produces consistent results
Part of the methods sections that explains how to go about collecting data
Also known as a questionnaire
Data that is open ended, in-depth, and insight-oriented
This has to be present in an experiement
Level of measurement where distance has no meaning
Type of survey involving closed ended questions with forced choices
Observation where researchers remains apart from the observed
People tend to change behavior when they know they are being observed
Data that is consistent and standardized and uses large samples in its research
Type of criterion validity that has the ability to predict future events
Only chance determines which elements will make it into the sampe
Group of people with certain specific characteristics
A group of people who represent a larger population
A sample that accurately reflects the characteristics
A written set of questions to be answered by a research participant
A survey method in which a trained researcher ask questions and record the answers
Research method in which people respond to questions
Facts or statistics
Questions a person must answer by choosing from a limited, set of responses
Questions a person is to answer in his or her own words
Intensive study of a single group
Research that takes place in a natural setting
Using precollected information for data collection and research purposes
The belief that events occur in predictable ways
A characteristic that is subject to change
A characteristic that can be measured numerically
It can be assumed that it is present, but it cannot be seen or measured directly.
An educated guess.
In order for a study to be conformed, it must be _______________.
Gathering information by asking people a series of questions.
________________________ is the whole group you want to study or describe.
When researchers conduct any type of study, they must consider what group or groups of people they wish to examine and how respondents will be selected.
Individuals are selected by chance from the target population.
In a ___________ ___________, subgroups in the population are represented proportionally.
______________or predisposition to a certain point of view.
A ______________ ______ often have different outlook from people who do not volunteer for research studies.
An in-depth investigation of an individual or a small group.
Researchers select a group of participants then observe those participants over a long period of time.
In the _____________ _____________ _________, instead of following a set of individuals over a number of years, they select a sample that includes people of different ages.
____________ observation is when researchers observes individuals interacting with other individuals of the same age.
____________ observation is any place that provides the opportunity for observation or experimentation.
The measure of how closely one thing is related to the other.
A characteristic that changes between individuals, such as gender, age, intelligence, weight)
A study design in which a psychologist or therapist observes one person over a long period of time
An observational study in which the researcher unobtrusively observes and records behavior in the real world
A research sample that accuratel reflects the population of people one is studying
A study which does not show causation, but does measure 2 or more variables and their relationship with one another
A research technique for combining all research results on one question and drawing a conclusion
(2 words seperated by a space)A measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables or the extent of an experimental effect
In an experiment, the outcome or response to an experimental manipulation
A variable that is manipulated by an experimenter under controlled conditions to determine whether it is caused by the predicted outcome of an experiment
A variable whose influence cannot be separated from the independent variable being manipulated
A substance or treatment that appears identical to the actual treatment but lacks the active substance
The method used to assign participants to different research conditions so that all participants have the same chance of being in any specific group
A group of research participants who are treated exactly the same way as the experimental group, except that they do not receive the independent variable or treatment.
A study ub which neither the participants nor the researchers administering the treatment know who has been assigned to the experimental or control group
An explanation of the purposes of the study following data collection
The score that separates the lower half of the scores from the upper half
(2 words) A statistical measure of how much the scores in a sample vary around the mean
The most commonly occurring score or value
A plotted curve that shows a normal distribution of scores
A statistic that compares two means to see whether they could come from the same population
The arithmetic average of a series of numbers
Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis
Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities
The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn
Official count or survey of a population
A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like
A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation
A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data
Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range
Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data
Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number
Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions
Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only.
Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless
Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful
Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point.
Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied
Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time
Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome
Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence
a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable.
The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not.
noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment.
denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test.
With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions.
the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated.
type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval.
One of the non-probability sampling methods
Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata
sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population
the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population
the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling.
a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected
subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen.
Subjects that are very carefully chosen
subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection
What research paradigm is based on the pragmatic view of reality?
What is the opposite of a variable?
The strongest evidence for causality comes from which research method?
An integrated statement of and justification for the technical decisions involved in planning a research project
Data that is typically descriptive
Data that can be measured
What form of data is collected in empirical research?
Research with no prior knowledge
Avoids metaphysical concepts e.g. truth, reality
Research that describes what is happening
Research that describes the relationship between variables
What type of research forecasts future phenomena?
What type of research uses findings from existing works?
The quality of being logically and factually sound
This refers to the consistency of a research study or measuring test
The extent of a relationship or associations between variables but the relationship is non-casual
Casual relationships between two or more variables
A quantitative way of collecting data that is not an interview
The repeatability of a set of results
What type of research provides the strongest evidence about cause and effect relationships?
To group information into categories
The variable that depends on other factors, also the variable that will be measured and affected during the experiment
To examine carefully and in detail to identify
To observe carefully and in detail
To make a conclusion based on reasoning and observations
The action or process of examining something carefully in order to
To name or recognize something based on its properties
A standard to compare with the results in an experiment
The variables that the experimenter changes to test their dependent variable
A statement predicting the result of a controlled scientific experiment
The process used by scientists to solve problems
To determine the extent, quantity or dimensions
The methodological studying of the natural world through experimentation and verification of facts
Evidence gathered through observations (especially during experiments)
The outcome or conclusion of an experiment after a period of time
Visual aids used by scientists to communicate results of an experiment
The collecting of information on a particular subject
A feature of the experiment that does not change
To form an idea as a result of the analysis of the data
A detailed series of steps to follow to perform an experiment
To write down in permanent form for later reference
To cause favoritism or influence to experimental results
To repeat a research study, usually with different participants and in different situations, to confirm the results of the original study
A scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a hypothesis or demonstrate a known fact
What a scientist writes summarizing the results of an experiment
To record observations, research and other information related to the experiment
To notice similarities or differences
Indicate in advance on the basis of observation, experience or scientific reason
The first step in the scientific method is to define or identify the ________.
Part of the experiment capable to change