Type
Crossword
Description

Caused by a gene's susceptibilty to developing this disease ankylosing spondylitis
A receptor that helps produce inflammation interleukin1
A receptor system that increases the gene's susceptibilty to developing the disease interleukin23
Allow for communication across a synapse between neurons or target cells neurotransmitter
This neurotransmitter results in pain in AS if there is no inhibitor excitatory
A sensory receptor that detects painful stimuli amd coverts it into nerve impulses nociceptors
A system that brings about pain sensation and inflammation in AS endocannibinoid
a priniciple receptor in the CNS that transmits noxious stimuli to the brain cannibinoid1
a receptor found in the periphery which plays a role in processing pain due to inflammation cannibinoid2
This neurotransmiiter binds to receptors to transmit pain,temperature and mechanical stimuli for acute pain glutamate
A receptor that binds directly to ion channels ionotropic
receptors that are coupled with G proteins that activate secondary messengers for ion channels to open metabotropic
An inflammatory and pain enhancing mediate that brings about chronic pain substanceP
Receptors that bind to sustance P to transmit pain stimuli. neurokinin1

Cellular Communication Vocabulary Crossword Match the word to the definition.

Type
Crossword
Description

Strengthening of stimulus energy during transduction. Amplification
Convert (a substance, molecule, etc.) into a reactive form. Activated
The bulging out of a part of a cell below the plasma membrane or expansion of air-filled tissue, as occurs in the lungs in bullous emphysema. Blebbing
Process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Apoptosis
A common biochemical process in which a phosphate group is removed from an organic compound through hydrolysis. Dephosphorylation
Occurs when endocrine cells release hormones that act on distant target cells in the body. Endocrine signaling
Monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period. GDP
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior. G Protein
Seven-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors, that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses. G Protein Coupled Receptor
Generated by one of the enzymes in the citric acid cycle. GTP
A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs. Hormone
Substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. Ligand
Ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger, such as a neurotransmitter. Ligand-gated ion channel
Form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior or differentiation of those cells. Paracrine signaling
The transferring of phosphoryl group from a donor to the recipient molecule. Phosphorylation
Sequence of events where one enzyme phosphorylates another, causing a chain reaction leading to the phosphorylation of thousands of proteins. Phosphorylation Cascade
Kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation). Protein Kinase
An enzyme that removes a phosphate group from the phosphorylated amino acid residue of its substrate protein. Protein Phosphatases
System of stimuli and response correlated to population density. Quorum sensing
Target cell's detection of a signal via binding of a signaling molecule, or ligand. Reception
Any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus. Reponse
The high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
Crucial regulators of many key signaling pathways. Scaffolding Proteins
Similar to paracrine signaling but there is a special structure called the synapse between the cell originating and the cell receiving the signal. Synaptic signaling
A set of chemical reactions in a cell that occurs when a molecule, such as a hormone, attaches to a receptor on the cell membrane. Signal Transduction Pathway
Molecules that relay signals received at receptors on the cell surface — such as the arrival of protein hormones, growth factors, etc. — to target molecules in the cytosol and/or nucleus. Second messengers
Process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. Transduction
Can control different processes in the cell including the cell cycle. Relay Protein
Messenger of neurologic information from one cell to another. Neurotransmitter

Cell Communication Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A set of chemical reactions in a cell that occurs when a molecule attaches to a receptor on the cell membrane Signaltransductionpathway
A system of stimuli and response correlated to population density Quorum Sensing
A form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells Paracrine
A release of hormones that act on distant target cells in the body Endocrine
Similar to paracrine signaling but there is a special structure called the synapse between the cell originating and the cell receiving the signal Synaptic
A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs Hormone
When the target cell detects a signal, usually in the form of a small, water-soluble molecule, via binding to receptor protein Reception
The process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector Transduction
Any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus Response
Usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein Ligand
Act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior GProtein
Constitute a large protein family of receptors, that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses Gproteincoupledreceptor
Guanine Triphosphate GTP
Guanine Diphosphate GDP
Refers to the reversible transition of a molecule into a nearly identical chemical or physical state Activated
High-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors RTKs
A phosphate group is added Phosphorylation
They pass the message to the next signaling component in the chain without otherwise participating Relay Protein
A group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger Ligandgatedionchannel
Kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them Protein Kinase
A phosphate group is taken away Dephosphorylation
A sequence of events where one enzyme phosphorylates another, causing a chain reaction leading to the phosphorylation of thousands of proteins Phosphorylation cascade
An enzyme that removes a phosphate group from the phosphorylated amino acid residue of its substrate protein Protein Phosphatases
A molecule that relays messages in a cell from a receptor on a cell membrane to the final destination where an action within the cell is to take place second messengers
A secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells IP3
A glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages DAG
A mechanism leading to multiple copies of a chromosomal region within a chromosome arm Amplification
Interact and/or bind with multiple members of a signaling pathway, tethering them into complexes Scaffolding Proteins
A process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms Apoptosis
Protrusion of the plasma membrane of a cell Blebbing

Sensation & Perception Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

The minimum amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect absolutethreshold
The perception that a stationary object is moving apparentmovement
The process of focusing awareness on a narrow aspect of the environment attention
The nerve structure that receives information about sound from the hair cells of the inner ear and carries these neural impulses to the brain’s auditory areas auditorynerve
In the sense of vision, the bringing together and integration of what is processed by different neural pathways or cells binding
Depth cues that depend on the combination of the images in the left and right eye and on the way the two eyes work together binocularcues
The operation in sensation and perception in which sensory receptors register information about the external environment and send it up to the brain for interpretation bottomupprocessing
The receptor cells in the retina that allow for color perception cones
A binocular cue to depth and distance in which the muscle movements in an individual’s two eyes provide information about how deep and/or far away something is Convergence
The ability to perceive objects three-dimensionally depthperception
The degree of difference that must exist between two stimuli before the difference is detected differencethreshold
Neurons in the brain’s visual system that respond to particular features of a stimulus featuredetectors
The principle by which we organize the perceptual field into stimuli that stand out (figure) and those that are left over (ground) figuregroundrelationship
Theory on how the inner ear registers the frequency of sound, stating that the perception of a sound’s frequency depends on how often the auditory nerve fires frequencytheory
A school of thought interested in how people naturally organize their perceptions according to certain patterns gestaltpsychology
The part of the ear that includes the oval window, cochlea, and basilar membrane and whose function is to convert sound waves into neural impulses and send them to the brain innerear
Senses that provide information about movement, posture, and orientation kinestheticsenses
The part of the ear that channels sound through the eardrum, hammer, anvil, and stirrup to the inner ear middleear
Powerful depth cues available from the image in one eye, either the right or the left monocularcues
Irrelevant and competing stimuli—not only sounds but also any distracting stimuli for the senses noise
The lining of the roof of the nasal cavity, containing a sheet of receptor cells for smell olfactoryepithelium
Theory stating that cells in the visual system respond to complementary pairs of red-green and blue-yellow colors; a given cell might be excited by red and inhibited by green, whereas another cell might be excited by yellow and inhibited by blue opponentprocesstheory
The structure at the back of the eye, made up of axons of the ganglion cells, that carries visual information to the brain for further processing opticnerve
The outermost part of the ear, consisting of the pinna and the external auditory canal outerear
The sensation that warns an individual of damage to the body pain
Rounded bumps above the tongue’s surface that contain the taste buds, the receptors for taste papillae
The simultaneous distribution of information across different neural pathways parallelprocessing
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information so that it makes sense perception

Neuron Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell. Neuron
a chemical substance which is released at the end of a nerve fibre by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, effects the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fibre, a muscle fibre, or some other structure. Neurotransmitter
relating to sensation or the physical senses; transmitted or perceived by the senses. Sensory
Share. Motor neurone disease (MND) is a condition which causes weakness in the muscles that gets worse and eventually leads to paralysis. It is also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS. Motor
a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter Synapse
near the surface of the body, with special reference to the circulation and nervous system. Peripheral
a neuron which transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc. Interneuron
the complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord. Central
a non-specialised sensory receptor, or more accurately the receptive portion of a sensory neuron, that codes absolute and relative changes in temperature, primarily within the innocuous range. Thermoreceptor
a sense organ or cell that responds to mechanical stimuli such as touch or sound. Mechanoreceptors
a sensory cell or organ responsive to chemical stimuli. Chemoreceptors
A thing or event that evoke a specific functional reaction in the organ or tissue Stimuli
a region of the forebrain below the thalamus which coordinates both the autonomic nervous system and the activity of the pituitary. Hypothalamus

Neuroscience Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

Another name for action potential (the message being sent); a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon Impulse
The finger-like branches on a neuron that receive messages from other cells Dendrites
Neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contraction Acetylcholine
Excess dopamine receptor activity is linked to this brain disease schizophrenia
Neurotransmitter that helps control the brain's reward and pleasure center Dopamine
Part of a neuron that passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands Axon
Type of neurons that control muscles Motor
Period after a neuron has fired an impulse; it pauses to recharge itself so it can fire again Refractory
Layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axons of some neurons and helps speed their impulses Myelin Sheath
The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse threshold
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors (sight, sound, touch, taste, smell) to the central nervous system Sensory
Undersupply of Acetylcholine (ACh) marks this brain disease Alzheimers
Signals that tell the neuron "FIRE!" (insert happy dance here) Excitatory
From Legally Blonde: "Exercise gives you ___________. __________ make you happy. Happy people just don't shoot their husbands. They just don't." (Hint- They are the same word) Endorphins
The sodium-potassium pump moves ________ out of the axon out
Provides energy for the neuron to carry out its function Nucleus
People who have splitting migraines may have an overproduction of this neurotransmitter Glutamate

Cell Signaling Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Type of signaling where signals are involved in local diffusion through synapses, followed by long distance electrical signaling Neurotransmission
Type of receptor where ligand binding that results in exposure of receptor active site on the cytoplasmic side of the cell allows for phosphorylating activity Protein Kinase
A small molecule that brings about later steps in a signal transduction pathway, amplifying and distributing the original signal Secondary messenger
Lipid soluble hormone that alters gene expression to activate increased transcription of actin and myosin Steroid
Binding of this molecule leads to production of many molecules of cAMP that activate protein kinase A Epinephrine
These receptors change the balance of ion concentrations, causing changes in electrical potential across the cell membrane Ion channel receptors
Type of signaling in which signals affect cells that release them Autocrine
Type of signaling in which signals travel through circulatory system of animals or vascular system of plants to reach receptors on distant cells Hormone
Chemical signals an animal release to environment to provoke response from other individuals Pheromones
Hormone binding to this receptor actives a certain protein by exchanging its GDP for GTP in order for it to activate an effector protein G Protein Linked receptor
Type of signaling which requires direct contact between the signaling and responding cell Juxtacrine
A protein within the brain that experiences increased levels of phosphorylation due to alcohol consumption CREB
A protease triggered by external/internal signals to hydrolyze target proteins of nucleosomes, the cell membrane, and the nuclear envelope Caspase
An enzyme within the cAMP/epinephrine pathway that activates/inhibits target proteins to trigger glucose release into bloodstream ProteinkinaseA

Nervous System Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Main organ of the Nervous System Brain
Thin layer that protects the brain Membrane
Another word for skull Cranium
Type of spinal nerve Sacral
Connects the brain to the nerves in the whole body spinal cord
Long fibers that lead to all parts of the body from the spinal cord Nerves
A sensory receptor for the nose Smell
Type of sensory organ that allows you to see Eyes
The gap between the axon of one cell and the dendrit of another cell Synapse
Long fibers that carry messages away from the cell body axon
Branching fibers that bring messages toward the cell body Dendrite
Examples are: Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves, Neurons organ
Specialized structures that respond to sensory stimuli receptors
A type of sensory receptor that lets you feel temperature cold
Chemical _____ carry messages across the synapse neurotransmitters
Nerves resemble these fibers
Sensory organ that allows you to hear ears
A function of the nervous system - to receive ___ from the environment stimuli
The brain sends instructions to glands to release these hormones
The brain sends instructions to these muscles

reflex arc Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

this receptor binds a poison muscarinic
from stimulus to response is termed a reflexarc
sympathetic respons to stress flight or fight
parasympathetic pathways begin in the craniosacral
the end of the dendrite, that detects stimulus receptor
cells that transmit impulses towards the CNS sensory
where impulses are coordinated and a response is organized central nervous system
a cell that carries an impulse away motor
motor impulses leave the _______ horn ventral
a muscle or gland that carries out a reponse effector
a rapid, uncomplicated and automated response simple
simple response that does not involve the brain spinal reflex
a stretched muscle that responds by contracting stretch reflex
also known as the visceral system (abbreviated) ans
this system can be summarized by the 4 E'S sympathetic
motor neurons originate in the thoracolumbar
two cordlike strands of ganglia, sympathetic... chains
nerves that supply the abdominal and pelvis organs synapse are_____ganglia collateral
activated by adrenaline adrenergic
these motor pathways begin in the craniosacral
this system is termed cholinergic parasympathetic
neurons of the parasympathetic release ACh, this system is cholinergic
also known as_____these are near or within walls of effectors terminal
2nd class of receptors is the adrenergic receptors alpha and _____ beta
binds nicotine on skeletal muscle cells nicotinic
a poison binds these receptors muscarinic

Properties and Types of Sensory Receptors Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A cell or organ specialized to detect a stimulus, such as taste cell, or the eye Receptor
An organ of the body that responds to external stimuli by conveying impulses to the sensory nervous system Sense Organ
The action of converting one form of energy into another Transduction
A variable change in membrane voltage produced by a stimulus acting on a receptor cell; generates an action potential if it reaches threshold Receptor Potential
Conscious perception of a stimulus Sensation
Refers to the type of stimulus or the sensation it produces Modality
Theory of sensory interpretation which explains how the brain separates different sensations based on the area of the body that the signal comes from Labeled Line Code
The area in which a sensory neuron detects stimuli Receptive Field
The ability of the brain to identify the site of stimulation Sensory Projection
Pathways followed by sensory signals to their ultimate destinations in the CNS Projection Pathways
Refers to whether a light is loud or soft, a light is dim or bright, a pain is mild or excruciating Intensity
How long a stimulus lasts Duration
What happens if stimulus is prolonged, the firing of the neuron gets slower over time and we become less sensitive to the stimulus Sensory Adaptation
Generate a burst of action potentials when first stimulated, then quickly adapt and sharply reduce or stop signaling even if the stimulus continues Phasic Receptors
A type of receptor that adapts slowly and generate signals steadily Tonic Receptors
A neuron specialized to respond to heat or cold, found in the skin and mucous membranes, for example Thermoreceptors
A sensory cell or sense organ that responds to light falling on it Photoreceptors
A nerve ending specialized to detect tissue damage and produce a sensation of pain Nociceptors
An organ or cell specialized to detect chemicals, as in the carotid bodies and taste buds Chemoreceptors
A sensory nerve ending or organ specialized to detect mechanical stimuli such as touch, pressure, stretch, or vibration Mechanoreceptors
A sensory receptor of the muscles, tendons, and joint capsules that detects muscle contractions and joint movements Proprioceptors

Sensory Receptors and Processing Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

changes in the environment stimuli
mechanoreceptors detect touch, pressure, _____ and stretch vibration
receptors that detect changes in temperature thermoreceptors
receptors that respond to wavelengths of light photoreceptors
photoreceptors are only found in the _____ retina
receptors that detect chemicals suspended in fluid chemoreceptors
receptors that respond to pain if damage to tissue is impending nociceptors
a mechanoreceptor that detects overstretch of a muscle musclespindle
a mechanoreceptor that detects overstretch of a tendon tendonorgan
a hair follicle receptor is a kind of _______ mechanoreceptor
___ are sensitive to stimuli outside of the body exteroreceptors
_____ are sensitive to stimuli inside of the body interoreceptors
____ inform the brain about limb position proprioreceptors
receptors that detect special senses specialsenseorgans
type of simple receptor with free nerve endings without a connective tissue cover nonencapsulated
type of simple receptor with a connective tissue sheath surround it encapsulated
a mechanoreceptor that allows for hearing organofcorti
a chemoreceptor that allows for taste tastebud
a chemoreceptor that allows for smell olfactoryepithelium
photoreceptors that specialize in vision rodsandcones
The special sense are: vision, hearing, taste, smell and ______. equilibrium
awareness of changes in the environment sensation
interpretation of sensations perception