eon in which microorganisms first evolved on Earth
era in which microorganisms first evolved on Earth
credited with introducing inoculations to the Americas
disproved spontaneous generation and supported biogenesis
provided evidence for the Germ Theory of Disease using Koch's postulates
accidentally discovered the antimicrobial properties of penicillin
discovered the strain of Penicillium that could be mass produced for antibiotics
proposed the Endosymbiotic Theory
helped low-income producers replenish nitrogen in their soils
single sugar units
macromolecule composed of two monosaccharides
macromolecule composed of 3 to 20 monosaccharides
macromolecule composed of 20+ monosaccharides
monomeric units of DNA or RNA
segment of DNA encoding for a protein or non-coding RNA molecule
polymer containing genetic information
genetic element that carries all the genes required by a microorganism (e.g. bacterium)
extrachromosomal element that houses genes
multicellular organisms that exist as multiple cells or colonies of cells
matrix enclosed within a plasma membrane that is composed of water, salts, and proteins and contains cellular structures
structural layer outside the plasma membrane surrounding some cells
polysaccharide composing the cell walls of bacteria
grape-clustered arrangement of cells
cocci cells arranged in chains
bacillus cells arranged in chains
cells with thick layers of peptidoglycan, teichoic acids, and two-ring flagella that stain purple in a Gram stain
cells with thin layers of peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharides, and four-ring flagella that stain red in a Gram stain
cells with a layer of mycolic acid in their cell walls that stain red following an acid-fast stain
monomeric units of polypeptides or proteins
short, linear sequences of amino acids
polypeptides or groups of polypeptides forming a molecule with secondary, tertiary, and (occasionally) quaternary structure that has a specific function
What biomolecule carries genetic information
What biomolecule is used for quick energy
What biomolecule stores long-term energy
What biomolecule makes muscle
Sugars, starches, and cellulose
Fats, oils, wax, cholesterol, cell membrane, and testoserone
DNA and RNA
Cartilage, meats, nuts, beans, feathers, skin, and hair
A carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together
Its simple sugars and its the most basic units of carbohydrates
It consists of two monosaccharide molecules joined together
Which fatty acid can have one or more bonds
Which fatty acid has only single bonds
Formed from glycerol and three fatty acid groups
What is a lipid that contains a phosphate group in its molecule
What is a large number of amino-acids that are bonded together in a chain
Is a amino acid a polymer or a monomer
It forms the basic structural unit (base) of nucleic acids
Is DNA or RNA a monomer or polymer
Only biomolecule with nitrogen
are proteins catalysts that speed up the rate of a chemical reactions in the body
are the building blocks/subunits of proteins
are macromolecules made of many monomers joined together
are the building blocks/subunits of nucleic acids
is a polysaccharide made of glucose units hooked together found in plant cell walls
are organic compounds commonly called fats and oils.
are organic compounds used to store and release energy
contains the elements carbon, hydrogen,oxygen and nitrogen and is composed of amino acids examples are insulin,hemglobin and enzymes
are the small building blocks of polymers
is a simple one unit sugar such as glucose or fructose having the formula C6H12O6
are the largest carbohydrate molecules, they are polymers composed of many monosaccharides linked together(starch, glycogen, chitin, etc.)
are macromolecules such as DNA and RNA
links amino acids together
is a polysaccharide consisting of highly branched chains of glucose units used as food storage in plants
a polysaccharide with highly branched chains of glucose units, used by animals to store food
Type macromolecule know a nucleic acid.
a nucleid acid present in all living cell.
it is paired with guanine in double-stranded DNA.
a compoun that ocurrs in guano and fish scales.
in DNA its place taken by thymine.
a pyrimidine derivative, it is paired with adenine in double-stranded DNA
a purine derivatinve, it is paired with thymine in double-stranded DNA.
the shape of DNA.
a sugar derived from ribose by replacing a hydroxyl group with hydrogen.
where does the mRNA travel to
a compound consisting of a nucleosides linked to a phosphate group.
process by which the genetic code puts together proteins in the cell.
messenger RNA, is a subtype of RNA.
activated by enzyme that attaches a specific amino acid to the end
the first step of the central dogmainvolves the synthesis of mRNA from DNA in process
once the mRNA is synthesized and processed, it moves to the ribosome.
a sphere- shaped structure within the cytoplasm of the cell that is composed of RNA and protein and is the site of protein synthesis.
the building blocks of all biological proteins.
set of three bases
built from a large number of amino acids.
A change in the genetic material of cell
Each three base set of genetic code.
The cell uses information from mRNA to make proteins during _____________ .
The language for naming RNA.
A condition in which an organism has extra set of chromosome.
A group of three bases of tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of condon of mRNA.
The tips of chromosomes.
The process of copying DNA from DNA.
A kind of virus that infects bacteria cell.
The process in which one stain of bacteria is change by a gene or genes from another bacteria.
An enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA.
A long chains of amino acids that make proteins
The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template , or pattern.
A type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to all cell part.
A type of RNA that carries each amino acid to form ribosomes.
A singled-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose.
A chemical or physical agent in the environment that interacts with DNA and may cause mutation.
A cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes.
A cell that contains only one set of genes.
Chromosomes in which one set comes from male parent and another set comes from female parent
Adenine and Guanine
A sequence of monomers is referred to as a
A macromolecule is composed of these single units
These are involved in tertiary structure.
This bond links the backbone in nucleic acids.
This nucleic acid is single stranded.
Composed of C,H, and O in a ratio of 1:2:1
Protein's are very specific in their _____, as it determines their function
This form of lipids are held together by an ester bond.
This "macromolecule" doesn't match the definition perfectly.
Monomer of carbohydrates
DNA -> RNA -> ______
Covalent bonds between amino acids result in this specific type of bond
Nucleic acids are built from chains of
Only some proteins have this type of structure.
If a protein is dropped in strong acid, it will...
This macromolecule is made of amino acids
This lipid is found in cell membranes.
This nitrogenous base is not found in RNA.
Triglycerides have 3 of these, while phospholipids have 2.
The plant equivalent to an animal's glycogen
Bond that joins two or more carbohydrate monomers together
This word can be used to describe a fatty acid found in plants or fish.
Reaction used to create polymers
Steroids are lipids that are composed of ______ rings.
Alpha helixes and beta sheets are created in what level of structure?
A hydrogen bond is the electrostatic attraction between polar groups that occurs when a hydrogen (H) atom bound to a highly electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O) or fluorine (F) experiences attraction to some other nearby highly electronegative atom.
An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.
large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits
a molecule that may bind chemically or supramolecularly to other molecules to form a polymer
a substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large number of similar units bonded toget many synthetic organic materials
biological molecule consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1
called simple sugars
polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
macromolecular biological catalysts
surface on which a plant or animal lives
large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
covalent chemical bond formed between two amino acid molecules.
biologically important organic compounds containing amine and carboxylic acid functional groups,
a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others
amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds
a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi.
an insoluble substance that is the main constituent of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibers such as cotton.
holding as much water or moisture as can be absorbed; thoroughly soaked.
having carbon–carbon double or triple bonds and therefore not containing the greatest possible number of hydrogen atoms for the number of carbons.
the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
uncommon in nature but became commonly produced industrially from vegetable fats for use in margarine, snack food, packaged baked goods and frying fast food
simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic.
is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated
biopolymers, or large biomolecules, essential for all known forms of life.
organic molecules that serve as the monomers
inorganic chemical and a salt of phosphoric acid.
carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5;
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses
Ribonucleic acid is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes
minimum energy which must be available to a chemical system with potential reactants to result in a chemical reaction.
An organelle found in plants and algae that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds (sugars) from carbon dioxide and water
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells bacteria fungi and some protists; protects the cell and helps maintain its shape
A structure found in animal cells from which microtubules originate and that is important during cell division (contains two centrioles)
The central vacuole is a cellular organelle found in plant cells. It is often the largest organelle in the cell. It is surrounded by a membrane and functions to hold materials and wastes.
A narrow thread of cytoplasm that passes through the cell walls of adjacent plant cells that allows connections between them.
A digestive organelle in eukaryotic cells; contains hydrolytic enzymes that digest engulfed food or damaged organelles
The contents of a eukaryotic cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; consists of a semi-fluid medium and organelles; can also refer to the interior of a prokaryotic cell
A cell structure consisting of RNA and protein organized into two subunits and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; in the eukaryotic cells the ribosomal subunits are constructed in the molecules
organelle composed of a double membrane that acts as the storehouse for most of a cell's DNA
A bean-shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA
The thickest of the three main kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a hollow tube made of globular proteins called tubulins; found in cilia and flagella
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes attached that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins
The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that lacks ribosomes centrioles/ A small cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
A small cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
A thin flexible layer around the cells of all living things; it's job is to separate the cytoplasm from the cell's surroundings
A complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
the building blocks of all biological proteins
set of three bases
a nitrogen base that pairs with cytosine
type of macromolecule that is a nucleic acid
in DNA its place is taken by thymine
the "D" in DNA
type of sugar RNA is
messenger RNA, is a subtype of RNA
this pairs with adenine in double-stranded DNA
the first step of protein synthesis that changes DNA into RNA
the shape of DNA
a sphere-shaped structure within the cytoplasm of the cell that is composed of RNA and protein and is the site of protein synthesis
opposite of codon
process by which teh genetic code puts together proteins in the cell
a compound consisting of a nitrogen base, sugar and a phosphate group
this is paired with thymine in double-stranded DNA
the second step of protein synthesis that changes RNA into proteins
brings amino acids from cytoplasm to a ribosome
built from a large number of amino acids
contains uracil and is single-stranded
it is paired with guanine in double-stranded DNA
Units that are joined together end to end by peptide bonds to form the polypeptide chains that comprise proteins
Lowest part of a hair strand; the thickened, club-shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root
Tiny grains of pigment in the cortex that give natural color to the hair
Middle layer of the hair; a fibrous protein core formed by elongated cells containing melanin pigment
Tube-like depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root
Tuft of hair that stands straight up
Oil glands of the skin connected to hair follicles
Hair that forms Ina circular pattern, as on the crown
Innermost layer of the hair, composed of round cells; often absent in fine hair
The portion of hair that projects beyond the skin
A weak, temporary side bond between adjacent polypeptide chains
Long hair found on the scalp, as well on legs, arms, and body of both males and females
Thickness or or diameter of the individual hair strands
Technical term for for beaded hair
Abnormal hair loss